CELLETS® 100 is a subtype of pellets made of microcrystalline cellulose. The size ranges from 100 µm to 200 µm. Find more product information and technical specifications.
Selected Scientific literature
Please, find scientific literature on CELLETS®, MCC spheres. This list is constantly updated and does not claim to be complete. If you are author, scientist or R&D specialist, please submit your present publication to us for improving the visibility.
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2023
The Effect of Design and Size of the Fluid‑Bed Equipment on the Particle Size‑Dependent Trend of Particle Coating Thickness and Drug Prolonged‑Release Profile
AAPS PharmSciTech (2023) 24, 93. doi:10.1208/s12249-023-02540-9
T. Brezovar, G. Hudovornik, M. Perpar, M. Luštrik, R. Dreu
Amorphous Solid Dispersions Layered onto Pellets—An Alternative to Spray Drying?
Pharmaceutics (2023) 15(3), 764. doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics15030764
M. Neuwirth, S.K. Kappes, M.U. Hartig, K.G. Wagner
Optimization of Fluidized-Bed Process Parameters for Coating Uniformity and Nutrient-Release Characteristics of Controlled-Release Urea Produced by Modified Lignocellulosic Coating Material
Agronomy (2023) 13(3), 725. doi:10.3390/agronomy13030725
A. Mahmood, B. Azeem, A.M. Alghamdi, K. Shahzad, A. Ahmad Al-Zahrani, M. Imtiaz Rashid, A. Binti Mahpudz, A. Jamil
Hydrodynamic behaviour of CELLETS® (Ph.Eur./USP) in a spouted bed using image processing method
Particuology (2023), 76, 101-112, doi:10.1016/j.partic.2022.07.009
J. Vanamu, A. Sahoo
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2022
Product-Property Guided Scale-Up of a Fluidized Bed Spray Granulation Process Using the CFD-DEM Method
Processes (2022) 10(7), 1291. doi:10.3390/pr10071291
P. Kieckhefen, S. Pietsch-Braune, S. Heinrich
Influence of In Situ Calcium Pectinate Coating on Metoprolol Tartrate Pellets for Controlled Release and Colon-Specific Drug Delivery
Pharmaceutics (2022) 14(5), 1061. doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics14051061
P. Wanasawas, A. Mitrevej, N. Sinchaipanid
Delamination and wetting behavior of natural hot-melt coating materials
Powder Technology (2022) 404, 117443. doi:10.1016/j.powtec.2022.117443
B.M. Woerthmann, L. Totzauer, H. Briesen
A systematic approach for assessing the suitability of enteral feeding tubes for the administration of controlled-release pellet formulations
International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2022) 612, 121286. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.121286
F. Karkossa, N. Lehmann, S. Klein
Spray-freeze-dried lyospheres: Solid content and the impact on flowability and mechanical stability
Powder Technology (2022) 411, 117905. doi:10.1016/j.powtec.2022.117905
A. Rautenberg, A. Lamprecht
Assessment of the effect of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) spheres size on the flow via powder rheolog
The FORGE, 2022 – pure.qub.ac.uk
V. Mohylyuk, R. Dattani
Solventless amorphization and pelletization using a high shear granulator. Part II; Preparation of co-amorphous mixture-layered pellets using indomethacin and arginine
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics (2022) 181, 183-194. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2022.11.011
K. Kondo, T. Rades
Solventless amorphization and pelletization using a high shear granulator. Part I; feasibility study using indomethacin
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics (2022) 181, 147-158. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2022.11.010
K. Kondo, T. Rades
Application of different models to evaluate the key factors of fluidized bed layering granulation and their influence on granule characteristics
Powder Technology (2022), 408:117737. doi: 10.1016/j.powtec.2022.117737
R. Maharjan, S. H. Jeong
Evaluation of gravitational consolidation of binary powder mixtures by modified Heckel equation
Powder Technology (2022), 408:117729. doi: 10.1016/j.powtec.2022.117729
P. Svačinová, O. Macho, Ž. Jarolímová, M. Kuentz, Ľ. Gabrišová and Z. Šklubalová
Integrated Purification and Formulation of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient via Agitated Bed Crystallization and Fluidized Bed Processing
Pharmaceutics (2022), 14(5)1058. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14051058
M. W. Stocker, M. J. Harding, V. Todaro, A. M. Healy and S. Ferguson
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2021
Correlating Granule Surface Structure Morphology and Process Conditions in Fluidized Bed Layering Spray Granulation
KONA Powder and Particle Journal (2021), DOI:10.14356/kona.2022016
M. Orth, P. Kieckhefen, S. Pietsch and S. Heinrich
Relative bioavailability enhancement of simvastatin via dry emulsion systems: comparison of spray drying and fluid bed layering technology
Eur J Pharm Biopharm (2021), S0939-6411(21)00353-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2021.12.004
M. Pohlen, J. Aguiar Zdovc, J. Trontelj, J. Mravljak, M. G. Matjaž, I. Grabnar, T. Snoj and R. Dreu
A novel method for assessing the coating uniformity of hot-melt coated particles using micro-computed tomography
Powder Technology, Volume 378, Part A, 22 January 2021, Pages 51-59
B.M. Woerthmann, J.A. Lindner, T. Kovacevic, P. Pergam, F. Schmid, H. Briesen
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2020
Measuring segregation characteristics of industrially relevant granular mixtures: Part II – Experimental application and validation
Powder Technology, Volume 368, 15 May 2020, Pages 278-285
Alexander M. Fry, Vidya Vidyapati, John P. Hecht, Paul B. Umbanhowar, Julio M. Ottinoa, Richard M. Lueptow
Introduction of the energy to break an avalanche as a promising parameter for powder flowability prediction
Powder Technology, Volume 375, 20 September 2020, Pages 33-41
Žofie Trpělková, Hana Hurychová, Martin Kuentz, Barbora Vraníková, Zdenka Šklubalová
Material specific drying kinetics in fluidized bed drying under mechanical vibration using the reaction engineering approach
Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 31, Issue 12, December 2020, Pages 4699-4713
Soeren E. Lehmann, Tobias Oesau, Alfred Jongsma, Fredrik Innings, Stefan Heinrich
In-line particle size measurement and process influences on rotary fluidized bed agglomeration
Powder Technology, Volume 364, 15 March 2020, Pages 673-679
Marcel Langner, Ivonne Kitzmann, Anna-Lena Ruppert, Inken Wittich, Bertram Wolf
Regulating the pH of bicarbonate solutions without purging gases: Application to dissolution testing of enteric coated tablets, pellets and microparticles
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 585, 30 July 2020, 119562
Nathan Scott, Kavil Patel, Tariro Sithole, Konstantina Xenofontos, Valentyn Mohylyuk, Fang Liu
Easy to Swallow “Instant” Jelly Formulations for Sustained Release Gliclazide Delivery
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 109, Issue 8, August 2020, Pages 2474-2484
Simmi Patel, Nathan Scott, Kavil Patel, Valentyn Mohylyuk, William J. McAuley, Fang Liu
Quantification of swelling characteristics of pharmaceutical particles
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 590, 30 November 2020, 119903
Mithushan Soundaranathan, Pattavet Vivattanaseth, Erin Walsh, Kendal Pitt, Blair Johnston, Daniel Markl
Effects of humidity on cellulose pellets loaded with potassium titanium oxide oxalate for detection of hydrogen peroxide vapor in powders
Powder Technology, Volume 366, 15 April 2020, Pages 348-357
Maria H. Kastvig, Cosima Hirschberg, Frans W.J. Van Den Berg, Jukka Rantanen, Mogens L. Andersen
Recent advance in delivery system and tissue engineering applications of chondroitin sulfate
Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 230, 15 February 2020, 115650
Jun Yang, Mingyue Shen, Huiliang Wen, Yu Luo, Rong Huang, Liyuan Rong, Jianhua Xie
Simulation of pellet coating in Wurster coaters
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 590, 30 November 2020, 119931
Hamid Reza Norouzi
Non-uniform drug distribution matrix system (NUDDMat) for zero-order release of drugs with different solubility
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 581, 15 May 2020, 119217
Matteo Cerea, Anastasia Foppoli, Luca Palugan, Alic Melocchi, Lucia Zema, Alessandra Maroni, Andrea Gazzaniga
Optimization and tracking of coating processes of pellets with polyvinylpyrrolidone solutions in an acoustic levitator
Powder Technology, Volume 360, 15 January 2020, Pages 1126-1133
Doris L. Wong, Anna-Lena Wirsching, Kai Betz, Andreas Reinbeck, Hans-Ulrich Moritz, Werner Pauer
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2019
Measurement of hydrogen peroxide vapor in powders with potassium titanium oxide oxalate loaded cellulose pellets as probes
AAPS PharmSciTech, Volume 21(1):3, 11 Nov 2019
Maria H. Kastvig, Johan P. Bøtker, Ge Ge, Mogens L. Andersen
Wurster Fluidised Bed Coating of Microparticles: Towards Scalable Production of Oral Sustained-Release Liquid Medicines for Patients with Swallowing Difficulties
AAPS PharmSciTech, Volume 21(1):3, 11 Nov 2019
Valentyn Mohylyuk, Kavil Patel, Nathan Scott, Craig Richardson, Darragh Murnane, Fang Liu
Assessment of the effect of Cellets’ particle size on the flow in a Wurster fluid-bed coater via powder rheology
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, Volume 54, December 2019, 101320
Valentyn Mohylyuk, Ioanna Danai Styliari, Dmytryi Novykov, Reiss Pikett, Rajeev Dattani
Particle electrification in an apparatus with a draft tube operating in a fast circulating dilute spout-fluid bed regime
Particuology, Volume 42, February 2019, Pages 146-153
Development and evaluation of budesonide-based modified-release liquid oral dosage forms
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, Volume 54, December 2019, 101273
Federica Ronchi, Antonio Sereno, Maxime Paide, Ismaël Hennia, Pierre Sacré, George Guillaume, Vincent Stéphenne, Jonathan Goole, Karim Amighi
Evaluation of in-line particle measurement with an SFT-probe as monitoring tool for process automation using a new time-based buffer approach
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 128, 1 February 2019, Pages 162-170
Theresa Reimers, Jochen Thies, Stefan Dietrich, Julian Quodbach, Miriam Pein-Hackelbusch
In vitro and sensory tests to design easy-to-swallow multi-particulate formulations
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 132, 30 April 2019, Pages 157-162
Marco Marconati, Felipe Lopez, Catherine Tuleu, Mine Orlu, Marco Ramaioli
Numerical study of the hydrodynamics of fluidized beds operated under sub-atmospheric pressure
Chemical Engineering Journal, Volume 372, 15 September 2019, Pages 1134-1153
Sayali Zarekar, Andreas Bück, Michael Jacob, Evangelos Tsotsas
Solidification of carvedilol loaded SMEDDS by swirling fluidized bed pellet coating
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 566, 20 July 2019, Pages 89-100
J. Mandić, M. Luštrik, F. Vrečer, M. Gašperlin, A. Zvonar Pobirk
Quantitative bin flow analysis of particle discharge using X-ray radiography
Powder Technology, Volume 344, 15 February 2019, Pages 693-705
Sanket Bacchuwar, Vidya Vidyapati, Ke-ming Quan, Chen-Luh Lin, Jan D. Miller
Adjustment of triple shellac coating for precise release of bioactive substances with different physico-chemical properties in the ileocolonic region
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 564, 10 June 2019, Pages 472-484>
Eva-Maria Theismann, Julia Katharina Keppler, Jörg-Rainer Knipp, Daniela Fangmann, Esther Appel, Stanislav N. Gorb, Georg H. Waetzig, Stefan Schreiber, Matthias Laudes, Karin Schwarz
The analysis of the influence of the normal restitution coefficient model on calculated particles velocities by means of Eulerian-Lagrangian approach
Powder Technology, Volume 344, 15 February 2019, Pages 140-151
Wojciech Ludwig, PaweƚPłuszka
Measurement of granule layer thickness in a spouted bed coating process via optical coherence tomography
Powder Technology, Volume 356, November 2019, Pages 139-147
Swantje Pietsch, Anna Peter, Patrick Wahl, Johannes Khinast, Stefan Heinrich
A novel method of quantifying the coating progress in a three-dimensional prismatic spouted bed
Particuology, Volume 42, February 2019, Pages 137-145
Swantje Pietsch, Finn Ole Poppinga, Stefan Heinrich, Michael Müller, Michael Schönherr, Frank Kleine Jäger
Development and evaluation of an omeprazole-based delayed-release liquid oral dosage form
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 567, 15 August 2019, 118416
Federica Ronchi, Antonio, Sereno, Maxime Paide, Pierre Sacré, George Guillaume, Vincent Stéphenne, Jonathan Goole, Karim Amighi
Influence of separation properties and processing strategies on product characteristics in continuous fluidized bed spray granulation
Powder Technology, Volume 342, 15 January 2019, Pages 572-584
Daniel Müller, Andreas Bück, Evangelos Tsotsas
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2018
Novel production method of tracer particles for residence time measurements in gas-solid processes
Powder Technology, Volume 338, October 2018, Pages 1-6
Swantje Pietsch, Paul Kieckhefen, Michael Müller, Michael Schönherr, Frank Kleine Jäger, Stefan Heinrich
The effect of administration media on palatability and ease of swallowing of multiparticulate formulations
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 551, Issues 1–2, 15 November 2018, Pages 67-75
Felipe L. Lopez, Terry B. Ernest, Mine Orlu, CatherineTuleu
Compressibility and tablet forming ability of bimodal granule mixtures: Experiments and DEM simulations
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 540, Issues 1–2, 5 April 2018, Pages 120-131
Josefina Nordström, Göran Alderborn, Göran Frenning
Effects of pharmaceutical processes on the quality of ethylcellulose coated pellets: Quality by design approach
Powder Technology, Volume 339, November 2018, Pages 25-38
Prakash Thapa, Ritu Thapa, Du Hyung Choi, Seong Hoon Jeong
Euler-Lagrange model of particles circulation in a spout-fluid bed apparatus for dry coating
Powder Technology, Volume 328, 1 April 2018, Pages 375-388
Wojciech Ludwig, Paweł Płuszka
Inline acoustic monitoring to determine fluidized bed performance during pharmaceutical coating
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 549, Issues 1–2, 5 October 2018, Pages 293-298
Allan Carter, Lauren Briens
Sifting segregation of ideal blends in a two-hopper tester: Segregation profiles and segregation magnitudes
Powder Technology, Volume 331, 15 May 2018, Pages 60-67
Mariagrazia Marucci, Banien Al-Saaigh, Catherine Boissier, Marie Wahlgren, Håkan Wikström
Multiple unit mini-tablets: Content uniformity issues
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 536, Issue 2, 5 February 2018, Pages 506-507
Anna Kira Adam, Jörg Breitkreutz
Influence of gas inflow modelling on CFD-DEM simulations of three-dimensional prismatic spouted beds
Powder Technology, Volume 329, 15 April 2018, Pages 167-180
Paul Kieckhefen, Swantje Pietsch, Moritz Höfert, Michael Schönherr, Stefan Heinrich, Frank Kleine Jäger
A redispersible dry emulsion system with simvastatin prepared via fluid bed layering as a means of dissolution enhancement of a lipophilic drug
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 549, Issues 1–2, 5 October 2018, Pages 325-334
Mitja Pohlen, Luka Pirker, Matevž Luštrik, Rok Dreu
Overview of PAT process analysers applicable in monitoring of film coating unit operations for manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 111, 1 January 2018, Pages 278-292
Klemen Korasa, Franc Vrečer
On the properties and application of beeswax, carnauba wax and palm fat mixtures for hot melt coating in fluidized beds
Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 3, March 2018, Pages 781-788
M.G. Müller, J.A. Lindner, H. Briesen, K. Sommer, P. Foerst
Novel hydrophilic matrix system with non-uniform drug distribution for zero-order release kinetics
Journal of Controlled Release, Volume 287, 10 October 2018, Pages 247-256
Matteo Cerea, Alessandra Maroni, Luca Palugan, Marco Bellini, Anastasia Foppoli, Alice Melocchi, Lucia Zema, Andrea Gazzaniga
Role of plasticizer in membrane coated extended release oral drug delivery system
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, Volume 44, April 2018, Pages 231-243
Pinak Khatri, Dipen Desai, Namdev Shelke, Tamara Minko
Evaluation of pellet cycle times in a Wurster chamber using a photoluminescence method
Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132, April 2018, Pages 1170-1179
Domen Kitak, Rok Šibanc, Rok Dreu
Influence of perforated draft tube air intake on a pellet coating process
Powder Technology, Volume 330, 1 May 2018, Pages 114-124
Matevž Luštrik, Rok Dreu, Matjaž Perpar
Optimising the in vitro and in vivo performance of oral cocrystal formulations via spray coating
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 124, March 2018, Pages 13-27
Dolores R. Serrano, David Walsh, Peter O’Connell, Naila A. Mugheirbi, Zelalem Ayenew Worku, Francisco Bolas-Fernandez, Carolina Galiana, Maria Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela, Anne Marie Healy
Mechanics of Pharmaceutical Pellets—Constitutive Properties, Deformation, and Breakage Behavior
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 107, Issue 2, February 2018, Pages 571-586
Alexander Russell, Rok Šibanc, Rok Dreu, Peter Müller
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2017
Production of composite particles using an innovative continuous dry coating process derived from extrusion
Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 28, Issue 11, November 2017, Pages 2875-2885
Fanny Cavaillès, Romain Sescousse, Alain Chamayou, Laurence Galet
Determination of the release mechanism of Theophylline from pellets coated with Surelease®—A water dispersion of ethyl cellulose
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 528, Issues 1–2, 7 August 2017, Pages 345-353
Jurgita Kazlauske, Maria Margherita Cafaro, Diego Caccavo, Mariagrazia Marucci, Gaetano Lamberti, Anna Angela Barba, Anette Larsson
In-line monitoring of multi-layered film-coating on pellets using Raman spectroscopy by MCR and PLS analyses
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 114, May 2017, Pages 194-201
Jin Hisazumi, Peter Kleinebudde
Analysis of pellet coating uniformity using a computer scanner
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 533, Issue 2, 30 November 2017, Pages 377-382
Rok Šibanc, Matevž Luštrik, Rok Dreu
Modeling of particle velocities in an apparatus with a draft tube operating in a fast circulating dilute spout-fluid bed regime
Powder Technology, Volume 319, September 2017, Pages 332-345
Wojciech Ludwig, Daniel Zając
UV imaging of multiple unit pellet system (MUPS) tablets: A case study of acetylsalicylic acid stability
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 119, October 2017, Pages 447-453
Anna Novikova, Jens M. Carstensen, Thomas Rades, Claudia S. Leopold
New hybrid CPU-GPU solver for CFD-DEM simulation of fluidized beds
Powder Technology, Volume 316, 1 July 2017, Pages 233-244
H.R. Norouzi, R. Zarghami, N. Mostoufi
A top coating strategy with highly bonding polymers to enable direct tableting of multiple unit pellet system (MUPS)
Powder Technology, Volume 305, January 2017, Pages 591-596
Frederick Osei-Yeboah, Yidan Lan, Changquan Calvin Sun
Synthesis and melt processing of cellulose esters for preparation of thermoforming materials and extended drug release tablets
Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 177, 1 December 2017, Pages 105-115
Sanna Virtanen, Riku Talja, Sauli Vuoti
Downstream drug product processing of itraconazole nanosuspension: Factors influencing drug particle size and dissolution from nanosuspension-layered beads
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 524, Issues 1–2, 30 May 2017, Pages 443-453
Johannes Parmentier, En Hui Tan, Ariana Low, Jan Peter Möschwitzer
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2016
In-line particle size measurement and agglomeration detection of pellet fluidized bed coating by Spatial Filter Velocimetry
Powder Technology, Volume 301, November 2016, Pages 261-267
Dimitri Wiegel, Günter Eckardt, Florian Priese, Bertram Wolf
Effect of formulation variables on oral grittiness and preferences of multiparticulate formulations in adult volunteers
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 92, 20 September 2016, Pages 156-162
Felipe L. Lopez, Alexandra Bowles, Mine Orlu Gul, David Clapham, Terry B. Ernest, Catherine Tuleu
Micropellet-loaded rods with dose-independent sustained release properties for individual dosing via the Solid Dosage Pen
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 499, Issues 1–2, 29 February 2016, Pages 271-279
Eva Julia Laukamp, Klaus Knop, Markus Thommes, Joerg Breitkreutz
Multivariate calibration of the degree of crystallinity in intact pellets by X-ray powder diffraction
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 502, Issues 1–2, 11 April 2016, Pages 107-116
Krisztina Nikowitz, Attila Domján, Klára Pintye-Hódi, Géza Regdon jr.
Towards improving quality of video-based vehicle counting method for traffic flow estimation
Signal Processing, Volume 120, March 2016, Pages 672-681
Yingjie Xia, Xingmin Shi, Guanghua Song, Qiaolei Geng, Yuncai Liu
Multiple-unit orodispersible mini-tablets
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 511, Issue 2, 25 September 2016, Page 1128
Anna Kira Adam, Christian Zimmer, Stefan Rauscher, Jörg Breitkreutz
Asymmetric distribution in twin screw granulation
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 106, September 2016, Pages 50-58
Tim Chan Seem, Neil A. Rowson, Ian Gabbott, Marcelde Matas, Gavin K. Reynolds, AndyIngram
Measurement of particle concentration in a Wurster coater draft tube using light attenuation
Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 110, June 2016, Pages 20-31
R. Šibanc, I. Žun, R. Dreu
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2015
Two-dimensional particle shape analysis from chord measurements to increase accuracy of particle shape determination
Powder Technology, Volume 284, November 2015, Pages 25-31
D. Petrak, S. Dietrich, G. Eckardt, M. Köhler
Passive acoustic emission monitoring of pellet coat thickness in a fluidized bed
Powder Technology, Volume 286, December 2015, Pages 172-180
Taylor Sheahan, Lauren Briens
Tabletability Modulation Through Surface Engineering
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 104, Issue 8, August 2015, Pages 2645-2648
Frederick Osei-Yeboah, Changquan Calvin Sun
Formulation and process optimization of multiparticulate pulsatile system delivered by osmotic pressure-activated rupturable membrane
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 480, Issues 1–2, 1 March 2015, Pages 15-26
Sheng-Feng Hung, Chien-Ming Hsieh, Ying-Chen Chen, Cheng-Mao Lin, Hsiu-O Ho, Ming-Thau Sheu
Dry Coating Characterization of Coverage by Image Analysis: Methodology
Procedia Engineering, Volume 102, 2015, Pages 81-88
Olivier Lecoq, Fredj Kaouach, Alain Chamayou
Passive acoustic emissions monitoring of the coating of pellets in a fluidized bed—A feasibility analysis
Powder Technology, Volume 283, October 2015, Pages 373-379
Taylor Sheahan, Lauren Briens
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2014
A New Apparatus for Real‐Time Assessment of the Particle Size Distribution of Disintegrating Tablets
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2014, Pages 3657-3665
Julian Quodbach, Peter Kleinebudde
In-line spatial filtering velocimetry for particle size and film thickness determination in fluidized-bed pellet coating processes
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 88, Issue 3, November 2014, Pages 931-938
Friederike Folttmann, Klaus Knop, Peter Kleinebudde, Miriam Pein
On-line monitoring of fluid bed granulation by photometric imaging
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 88, Issue 3, November 2014, Pages 879-885
Ira Soppela, Osmo Antikainen, Niklas Sandler, Jouko Yliruusi
Application properties of oral gels as media for administration of minitablets and pellets to paediatric patients
International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Volume 460, Issues 1–2, 2 January 2014, Pages 228-233
Anna Kluk, Malgorzata Sznitowska
In-line monitoring of pellet coating thickness growth by means of visual imaging
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 470, Issues 1–2, 15 August 2014, Pages 8-14
Nika Oman Kadunc, Rok Šibanc, Rok Dreu, Boštjan Likar, Dejan Tomaževič
Optical microscopy as a comparative analytical technique for single-particle dissolution studies
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 469, Issue 1, 20 July 2014, Pages 10-16
Sami Svanbäck, Henrik Ehlers, Jouko Yliruusi
Formulation of itraconazole nanococrystals and evaluation of their bioavailability in dogs
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 87, Issue 1, May 2014, Pages 107-113
Lieselotte De Smet, Lien Saerens, Thomas De Beer, Robert Carleer, Peter Adriaensens, Jan Van Bocxlaer, Chris Vervaet, Jean PaulRemon
Global monitoring of fluidized-bed processes by means of microwave cavity resonances
Measurement, Volume 55, September 2014, Pages 520-535
Johan Nohlert, Livia Cerullo, Johan Winges, Thomas Rylander, Tomas McKelvey, Anders Holmgren, Lubomir Gradinarsky, Staffan Folestad, Mats Viberg, Anders Rasmuson
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2013
Water-mediated solid-state transformation of a polymorphic drug during aqueous-based drug-layer coating of pellets
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 456, Issue 1, 1 November 2013, Pages 41-48
Andres Lust, Satu Lakio, Julia Vintsevits, Jekaterina Kozlova, Peep Veski, Jyrki Heinämäki, Karin Kogermann
Preparation and characterization of controlled-release doxazosin mesylate pellets using a simple drug layering-aquacoating technique
Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation (2013), 43:333–342. doi: 10.1007/s40005-013-0077-0
H. A. Hazzah, M. A. EL-Massik, O. Y. Abdallah & H. Abdelkader
Development of high drug loaded pellets by Design of Experiment and population balance model calculation
Powder Technology, Volume 241, June 2013, Pages 149-157
Florian Priese, Bertram Wolf
Particle sizing measurements in pharmaceutical applications: Comparison of in-process methods versus off-line methods
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 85, Issue 3, Part B, November 2013, Pages 1006-1018
Ana F.T. Silva, Anneleen Burggraeve, Quenten Denon, Paul Van der Meeren, Niklas Sandler, Tom Van Den Kerkhof, Mario Hellings, Chris Vervaet, Jean Paul Remon, João Almeida Lopes, Thomas De Beer
Physical properties of pharmaceutical pellets
Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 86, 4 February 2013, Pages 50-60
Rok Šibanc, Teja Kitak, Biljana Govedarica, StankoSrčič Rok Dreu
Continuous pellet coating in a Wurster fluidized bed process
Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 86, 4 February 2013, Pages 87-98
N. Hampel, A. Bück, M. Peglow, E. Tsotsas
Study of the recrystallization in coated pellets – Effect of coating on API crystallinity
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 48, Issue 3, 14 February 2013, Pages 563-571
Krisztina Nikowitz, Klára Pintye-Hódi, Géza Regdon Jr.
The influence of rolling friction on the shear behaviour of non-cohesive pharmaceutical granules – An experimental and numerical investigation
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 49, Issue 2, 13 May 2013, Pages 241-250
Ann-Sofie Persson, Göran Frenning
Characteristics of pellet flow in a Wurster coater draft tube utilizing piezoelectric probe
Powder Technology, Volume 235, February 2013, Pages 640-651
Matevž Luštrik, Rok Šibanc, Stanko Srčič, Matjaž Perpar, Iztok Žun, Rok Dreu
Estimating coating quality parameters on the basis of pressure drop measurements in a Wurster draft tube
Powder Technology, Volume 246, September 2013, Pages 41-50
Matjaž Perpar, Matevž Luštrik, Rok Dreu, Stanko Srčič, Iztok Žun
Influence of Non-Water-Soluble Placebo Pellets of Different Sizes on the Characteristics of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Manufactured by Freeze-Drying
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 102, Issue 6, June 2013, Pages 1786-1799
Ulrike Stange, Christian Führling, Henning Gieseler
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2012
A density-based segmentation for 3D images, an application for X-ray micro-tomography
Analytica Chimica Acta, Volume 725, 6 May 2012, Pages 14-21
Thanh N. Tran, Thanh T. Nguyen, Tofan A. Willemsz, Gijsvan Kessel, Henderik W. Frijlink, Kees van der Voort Maarschalk
Attrition and abrasion resistance of particles coated with pre-mixed polymer coating systems
Powder Technology, Volume 230, November 2012, Pages 1-13
G. Perfetti, F. Depypere, S. Zafari, P. van Hee, W.J. Wildeboer, G. M. H. Meesters
New spout-fluid bed apparatus for electrostatic coating of fine particles and encapsulation
Powder Technology, Volume 225, July 2012, Pages 52-57
Roman G. Szafran, Wojciech Ludwig, Andrzej Kmiec
Particle size and packing characterization by diffuse light transmission
Particuology Volume 10, Issue 5, October 2012, Pages 619-627
Henrik Ehlers, Jyrki Heinämäki, Jouko Yliruusi
Dry Powder Coating in a Modified Wurster Apparatus
Procedia Engineering, Volume 42, 2012, Pages 437-446
W. Ludwig, R.G. Szafran, A. Kmiec, J. Dziak
Attrition strength of water-soluble cellulose derivative coatings applied on different core materials
Powder Technology, Volume 222, May 2012, Pages 71-79
Katarzyna Nienaltowska, Frédéric Depypere, Giacomo Perfetti, Gabrie M.H. Meesters, Frederik Ronsse, Jan G. Pieters, Koen Dewettinck
An experimental evaluation of the accuracy to simulate granule bed compression using the discrete element method
Powder Technology, Volume 219, March 2012, Pages 249-256
Ann-Sofie Persson, Göran Frenning
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2011
Dry particle high coating of biopowders: An energy approach
Powder Technology, Volume 208, Issue 2, 25 March 2011, Pages 378-382
S. Otles, O. Lecoq, J. A. Dodds
A density based segmentation method to determine the coordination number of a particulate system
Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 66, Issue 24, 15 December 2011, Pages 6385-6392
Thanh T. Nguyen, Thanh N. Tran, Tofan A. Willemsz, Henderik W. Frijlink, Tuomas Ervasti, Jarkko Ketolainen, Kees van der Voort Maarschalk
Study of the preparation of a multiparticulate drug delivery system with a layering technique
Powder Technology, Volume 205, Issues 1–3, 10 January 2011, Pages 155-159
Krisztina Nikowitz, Péter Kása Jr., Klára Pintye-Hódi, Géza Regdon Jr.
Effect of annealing time and addition of lactose on release of a model substance from Eudragit® RS coated pellets produced by a fluidized bed coater
Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 89, Issue 6, June 2011, Pages 697-705
Ulrich M. Heckötter, Anette Larsson, Pornsak Sriamornsak, Mont Kumpugdee-Vollrath
Suspension pellet layering using PVA–PEG graft copolymer as a new binder
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 412, Issues 1–2, 30 June 2011, Pages 28-36
L. Suhrenbrock, G. Radtke, K. Knop, P. Kleinebudde
In-line particle sizing for real-time process control by fibre-optical spatial filtering technique (SFT)
Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 22, Issue 2, March 2011, Pages 203-208
Petrak Dieter, Dietrich Stefan, Eckardt Günter, Köhler Michael
Flowability of surface modified pharmaceutical granules: A comparative experimental and numerical study
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 42, Issue 3, 14 February 2011, Pages 199-209
Ann-Sofie Persson, Göran Alderborn, Göran Frenning
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2010
Labscale fluidized bed granulator instrumented with non-invasive process monitoring devices
Chemical Engineering Journal, Volume 164, Issues 2–3, 1 November 2010, Pages 268-274
Jari T. T. Leskinen, Matti-Antero H. Okkonen, Maunu M. Toiviainen, Sami Poutiainen, Mari Tenhunen, Pekka Teppola, Reijo Lappalainen, Jarkko Ketolainen, Kristiina Järvinen
X-ray micro tomography and image analysis as complementary methods for morphological characterization and coating thickness measurement of coated particles
Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 21, Issue 6, November 2010, Pages 663-675
Giacomo Perfetti, Elke Van de Casteele, Bernd Rieger, Willem J. Wildeboer, Gabrie M.H. Meesters
Granule size distribution of tablets
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 99, Issue 4, April 2010, Pages 2061-2069
Satu Virtanen, Osmo Antikainen, Heikki Räikkönen, Jouko Yliruusi
New insights into segregation during tabletting
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 397, Issues 1–2, 15 September 2010, Pages 19-26
S. Lakio, S. Siiriä, H. Räikkönen, S. Airaksinen, T. Närvänen, O. Antikainen, J.Yliruusi
Can encapsulation lengthen the shelf-life of probiotic bacteria in dry products?
International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 136, Issue 3, 1 January 2010, Pages 364-367
F. Weinbreck, I. Bodnár, M.L. Marco
Evaluation of in-line spatial filter velocimetry as PAT monitoring tool for particle growth during fluid bed granulation
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 76, Issue 1, September 2010, Pages 138-146
A. Burggraeve, T. Van Den Kerkhof, M. Hellings, J.P. Remon, C. Vervaet, T. De Beera
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2009
Impact of polymers on dissolution performance of an amorphous gelleable drug from surface-coated beads
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 37, Issue 1, 11 April 2009, Pages 1-10
Chon gFan, Rashmi Pai-Thakur, Wantanee Phuapradit, Lin Zhang, Hung Tian, Waseem Malick, Navnit Shah, M. Serpil Kislalioglu
Raman spectroscopic investigation of film thickness
Polymer Testing, Volume 28, Issue 7, October 2009, Pages 770-772
T. Sovány, K. Nikowitz, G. Regdon Jr., P. Kása Jr., K. Pintye-Hódi
In vivo evaluation of the vaginal distribution and retention of a multi-particulate pellet formulation
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 73, Issue 2, October 2009, Pages 280-284
Nele Poelvoorde, Hans Verstraelen, Rita Verhelst, Bart Saerens, Ellen De Backer, Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago, Chris Vervaet, Mario Vaneechoutte, Fabienne De Boeck, Luc Van Borteld, Marleen Temmerman, Jean-Paul Remon
Modulating pH-independent release from coated pellets: Effect of coating composition on solubilization processes and drug release
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 72, Issue 1, May 2009, Pages 111-118
Simon Ensslin, Klaus Peter Moll, Hendrik Metz, Markus Otz, Karsten Mäder
Dry Particle High-Impact Coating of Biopowders: Coating Strength
Particulate Science and Technology, Volume 27(4), 2009
S. Ötles, O. Lecoq, J. A. Dodds
Formulation and Analytical Development for Low-Dose Oral Drug Products
John Wiley & Sons , inc. (2009), ISBN 978-0-470-05609-7
Jack Zheng (Editor)
List – Publications with MCC spheres, 2008 and earlier
Attrition strength of different coated agglomerates
Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 63, Issue 5, March 2008, Pages 1361-1369
B. van Laarhoven, S.C.A. Wiers, S.H. Schaafsma, G.M.H. Meesters
Direct Drug Loading into Preformed Porous Solid Dosage Units by the Controlled Particle Deposition (CPD), a New Concept for Improved Dissolution Using SCF-Technology
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 97, Issue 10, October 2008, Pages 4416-4424
Ragna S. Wischumerski, Michael Türk, Martin A. Wahl
Optimisation of an enteric coated, layered multi-particulate formulation for ileal delivery of viable recombinant Lactococcus lactis
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 69, Issue 3, August 2008, Pages 969-976
Nele Poelvoorde, Nathalie Huyghebaert, Chris Vervaet, Jean-Paul Remon
Dynamic rearrangement of disulfide bridges influences solubility of whey protein coatings
International Dairy Journal, Volume 18, Issue 5, May 2008, Pages 566-573
René Floris, Igor Bodnár, Fanny Weinbreck, Arno C. Alting
New insight into modified release pellets – Internal structure and drug release mechanism
Journal of Controlled Release, Volume 128, Issue 2, 4 June 2008, Pages 149-156
Simon Ensslin, Klaus Peter Moll, Kurt Paulus, Karsten Mäder
Development of an enteric-coated, layered multi-particulate formulation for ileal delivery of viable recombinant Lactococcus lactis
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 61, Issue 3, October 2005, Pages 134-141
Nathalie Huyghebaert, An Vermeire, Pieter Rottiers, Erik Remaut, Jean Paul Remon
Evaluation of extrusion/spheronisation, layering and compaction for the preparation of an oral, multi-particulate formulation of viable, hIL-10 producing Lactococcus lactis
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 59, Issue 1, January 2005, Pages 9-15
Nathalie Huyghebaert, An Vermeire, Sabine Neirynck, Lothar Steidler, Eric Remaut, Jean Paul Remon
Liquid absorption capacity of carriers in the food technology
Powder Technology, Volume 134, Issue 3, 30 September 2003, Pages 201-209
Heidi Lankes, Karl Sommer, Bernd Weinreich
This case study on Atomoxetine HCl pellets is a short abstract of the publication by Y.D. Priya et al. .
Atomoxetine is a medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . The API is marketed under the trade names Atomoxetine, Atomoxe, Agakalin, and Strattera (initially launched) . Atomoxetine is an extremely bitter API. As being initially launched for children as capsules or tablets, the paediatric compliance by improved taste-masking and the simplified administration to paediatrics are in focus of this study.
A multi-unit particulate pellet coating (MUPS) was selected as oral dosage form. The fluidized bed technology (with Wurster column) was employed for coating and layering processes. This is a well-known technology, which Is for instance offered by Glatt. Starter cores were coated with the API, followed by layering with a polymeric coating for which realized the taste-masking.
Starter cores are made of Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) in sizes comparable to CELLETS® 200, while a fair efficiency of drug layering was observed with the combination of HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose) and HPC (Hydroxypropyl cellulose) as binders. The composition of API layering is presented in Table 1. The drug dispersion was sprayed onto the MCC pellets with an inlet temperature between 50 °C and 55 °C and a fluidized bed temperature between 35 °C and 40 °C.
|API layering material||Composition|
|Low-Substituted Hydroxypropyl Cellulose||5.00|
|Total weight (mg)||100.00|
Table 1: Formulation of API layered pellets.
The polymeric taste-masking layer is made of a methacrylate co-polymer (Eudragit EPO) providing an excellent coating with taste masking properties for fine particles and tablets. The composition of the taste-masking suspension is shown in Table 2. The inlet temperature is between 40 °C and 45 °C, and fluidized bed temperature is between 25 °C and 30 °C.
|Polymeric coating material||Composition|
|Drug Layered pellets||100.00|
|Sodium Lauryl Sulfate||2.500|
|FD&C Yellow No. 6||0.50|
|FD&C Red No. 3||0.05|
|Total weight (mg)||138.050|
Table 2: Formulation of polymeric coating suspension.
The efficiency of taste-masking was benchmarked by a bitterness rating on human volunteers. Figure 1 shows, that the taste sensitivity identifies a bitterness at 6 µg/ml API concentration and an extreme bitterness at 7 µg/ml API and higher concentration. Thus, the threshold bitterness of Atomoxetine HCl is 6 µg/ml.
All the volunteers felt bitter taste when the drug layered pellets were coated with 6.25 mg of Eudragit EPO. Whereas in the pellets coated with 12.5 mg and 18.75 mg of Eudragit EPO, bitter taste was masked up to 15 seconds after keeping the tablet in the mouth, and later all the human volunteers felt bitter taste. When the concentration of Eudragit EPO was increased to 25 mg, the bitter taste of Atomoxetine HCl was completely taste-masked and no volunteer was felt bitter taste.
Figure 3 depicts the entire particle size of a taste-masked MCC pellet coated with the Atomoxetine drug layer and 25 mg of Eudragit EPO. The average particle size of the taste-masked pellets is between 180 µm and 250 µm, assuming, that no gritty feeling of particles in patient’s mouth will appear. It should be said, that a micronization of Atomoxetine HCl was deemed to be necessary for the drug layering process. Micronization minimized the surface roughness of the API layered pellet so that an efficient taste-masking coating can be applied.
MCC pellets in the size of about 200 µm were layered with Atomoxetine. HPMC and HPC were used as binders, realizing a precise surface definition for a subsequent taste-masking coating. The taste-masking was most efficient at a polymeric concentration of 25 mg. Keeping the size of the coated pellets below 300 µm avoids a gritty feeling and thus increase the patient’s compliance.
This study by Priya et al. indicated that the fluidized bed process produced the most appropriate taste masked pellets of Atomoxetine HCl for oral disintegrating tablets.
 “Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Monograph for Professionals”. Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
 ROTE LISTE 2017, Verlag Rote Liste Service GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, ISBN 978-3-946057-10-9, (2017) 162.
Abstract on Tamoxifen
Tamoxifen is widely used in transgenic research in mice to induce Cre recombinase activity and achieve conditional gene knockouts . However administrating tamoxifen to mice is challenging The commonly used dosing methods are oral gavage or intraperitoneal injection  which require specialist staff training and can cause pain, distress and adverse effects to the animal. Tamoxifen containing rodent chow is commercially available however, the poor palatability of the diet leads to reduced food intake and weight loss of the mice. The addition of sweeteners improves palatability, but this can affect the metabolic balance of the mice.
In this application a study is described in which a palatable tamoxifen containing rodent chow is developed by mixing taste masking coated micropellets with powdered rodent food. This attempt shell improve:
- Reduction of potential welfare concerns,
- Reduction of dose variability,
- a more consistent recombinase activity,
- a decrease in the variability of phenotyping data from these experiments,
- a reduction in the number of animals used
The API was spray layered onto microcrystalline cellulose substrates CELLETS® 100 and subsequently coated using Surelease®, both as aqueous formulations in a bench top fluidized bed coater (Mini Glatt®). Two taste masking coated tamoxifen citrate micropellet formulations were prepared and analyzed. One formulation has a coating levels of 5 % (F1) and the second formulation contains mannitol in the drug layer with a coating level of 10 % (F2). Sieve analysis of taste masking coated micropellets (Figure 2) shows that both formulations achieved yields of at least 99 % (proportion of pellets with size < 250 µm), see Fig. 1.
In USP II dissolution test the uncoated tamoxifen citrate (micronized and un-micronized particles) showed a fast dissolution at >80 % release within 45 minutes (Figure 3). The micronized particles dissolved slower than the un-micronized due to particle agglomeration during dissolution.
Drug release slowed down after applying the taste masking coating; with decreasing pore former concentration or increasing coating thickness, the drug release rate decreases. After 45 min, both formulations F1 and F2 showed >75 % drug release, successful as immediate release formulations (Fig. 2).
Taste masking effectiveness of Tamoxifen micropellets
The in vitro tests for evaluating the taste masking effectiveness of the formulations showed that after 30s, micropellets with both coating formulations are effective in providing a taste masking barrier with a tamoxifen citrate release of less than 0.5% (Fig. 3).
Figure 3: Inverted Vial test for taste masking effect evaluation. Graphs: F1 (green), F2 (blue) with % Release after 30s (light color) and Concentration (mg/ml) after 30s (dark color).
Taste masking of coated tamoxifen citrate micropellets were successfully manufactured in a fluidized bed applying the MicroCoat™ technology with > 99% yield and particle size < 250 µm. The coating provided effective protection to prevent tamoxifen citrate release in the mouth but immediate drug release in the stomach pH conditions of the mice. Additionally, the small particle size of the coated micropellets ensured effective mixing with the powder rodent feed with excellent recovery and uniformity. The product is flexible in dose adjustment and improves API handling safety in animal units, offering an innovative approach of doing tamoxifen to mice for Cre recombination research via voluntary food intake. The method has the potential to reduce suffering
and improve welfare of the mice, promoting 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement) in animal research.
The project is funded by the United Kingdom National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (the NC3Rs) through the CRACK IT challenge Tat Fit project number NC/C020S02/1).
Dr. Fang Liu and her team are gratefully acknowledged for serving content for this note.
Fluid Pharma Ltd
Contact: Dr. Fang LIU
College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB, UK
Tel: +44 1707 28 4273
+44 796 3230 628
Patients with dysphagia may have obstacles to swallow tablets or large multiparticulates. The former dosage form can even not be crushed in case that the tablet exhibits a modified release or taste-masking profile through outer layering. As a solution, so called jelly formulations may be a valuable attempt. Jellies are delivery vehicles incorporating sustained release microparticles for patients with dysphagia. This case study investigates a modified release formulation based on Gliclazide. Gliclazide is used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2. In combination with selected excipients, a jelly-like appearance is composed. Micropellets made of microcrystalline cellulose (Cellets®) are used as API carrier systems.
Goals and Formulation of a Gliclazide drug
The goal is to investigate a revolutionary method for geriatrics with dysphagia or potentially for paediatrics based on jelly-like formulations. The formulation should carry an API such as Gliclazide and show a modified release profile.
Free-standing jellies are formulated by mixing sodium alginate (0.5 % w/v with another polymer, and 1 % w/v w/o polymer), with an aqueous solution of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (0.1-1 % w/v).
Soft granular jellies are formulated by preparing an aqueous sodium alginate (0.5-2 % w/v) solution with or without the presence of another polymer and by later adding an aqueous calcium chloride solution (0.1-0.3 % w/v).
MCC micropellets (Cellets® 100, Figure 1) are used as drug carriers. Gliclazide is layered onto the starter beads using a Wurster fluidized bed coater (Mini-Glatt, Glatt GmbH, Germany), so that a 50 % drug loading weight gain was reached. The overall final drug load including the functional layer is 21 % w/w. The composition of the layering suspension is given in Table 1.
|Starter pellet: Cellets® 100||100 g|
|API: Gliclazide||10 % w/w|
|Aqueous vehicle for API:|
|Hypromellose||1 % w/w|
|Talc||1.9 % w/w|
|Coating of API layered pellets:|
|Eudragit® NM 30 D|
Table 1: Formulation for Gliclazide layered starter pellets: starter pellets, aqueous API layering, release profile coating, functional coating.
Although the formulation contains several coating and layering processes, the processed micropellets stay smooth in surface, show a high sphericity and narrow size distribution.
Size distribution and dissolution profiles of Gliclazide microparticles
Polymer coated micropellets with CL25 (coating level 25 %) are shown in Figure 2. The yield of polymer coating and the final D50 values of the micropellets are displayed in Table 2.
Depending on the polymer coating, micropellets show a different Gliclazide release profile as shown in Figure 3: With increasing weight gain, the dynamics of Gliclazide release are slowed down. A comparison to Diamicron SR tablets in a pH 7.4 phosphate buffer, the CL25 formulation results in an adequate release profile.
|Micropellet||Size D50 [µm]||Yield [%]|
|Starter pellet (Cellets® 100)||160 ± 2.1|
|Micropellet at CL16||173 ± 3.6||98.4|
|Micropellet at CL20||185 ± 2.4||99.3|
|Micropellet at CL25||198 ± 4.3||99.0|
|Micropellet at CL60||208 ± 6.7||98.7|
Table 2: Particle size of the micropellets with and without layering. CL = coating level / weight gain in [%]. The yield for the polymer coatings at respective weight gains.
Incorporation of the Gliclazide microparticles into jellies
The incorporation of sustained release Gliclazide microparticles into the Jellies is realized through mixing the required quantity of microparticles with polymers (sodium alginate or polymer mixture).
Sodium alginate is known to form gels in the presence of calcium ions at room temperature. Depending on the formulation, granular jellies (soft and easy to flow) or free-standing jellies (“ready-to-eat”) are formed. Formulations of jellies with and without API layered micropellets are shown in Figure 4. Incorporating the micropellets into the jellies did not cause a visual change in color or appearance. The API was kept inside the jellies. Also physical-chemical properties such as the gel strength, the texture, and the oral transit time in an in-vitro swallowing simulator are remained unchanged.
Figure 4: Images of a Jelly without (left) and with incorporation of sustained release micropellets (right).
A release profile of Gliclazide with a coating level of 25 % in a jelly formation is shown in Figure 5. In comparison to a reference release profile of a Diamicron 30 mg SR tablet, the coated micropellets show a competitive behavior as already discussed in Figure 3. After incorporating into the jelly formation, the release profile is decaying. Obviously, the intact and also the fragmented jelly formulation show comparable dynamics. In order to obtain a comparable release profile than with the non-formulated micropellets, a coating level of down to 20 % is required.
Sustained release Gliclazide micropellets with a final particle size D50 of less than 200 µm are successfully formulated with a 99 % production yield and adjustable drug release profiles.
The micropellets are based on Cellets® 100 and present an excellent surface smoothness, high sphericity and narrow size distribution. They were successfully incorporated in jelly formulations. This novel drug delivery platform is a suitable vehicle for the administration of sustained release microparticles. It is a valuable attempt to replace the commonly used thickened fluids for dysphagia patients.
Dr. Fang Liu and her team are gratefully acknowledged for serving content for this note.
Fluid Pharma Ltd
Contact: Dr. Fang LIU
College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB, UK
Tel: +44 1707 28 4273
+44 796 3230 628
Modified drug release formulations for suspensions are a perfect solution for children and patients with swallowing difficulties. In many cases, these formulations are based on pellets serving as starter beads. In this report, an attempt on microparticle coating by Mohylyuk et al.  is described. Herein, small scaled microcrystalline cellulose pellets (Cellets® 90 and Cellets® 100, Table 1) in the size range smaller than 150 µm are used. Through a modified Wurster fluidized bed process, a yield of 99 % was reached.
|Starter materials||PSD (> 85 %)|
|Cellets® 90||63-125 μm|
|Cellets® 100||100-200 µm|
Table 1: Size distribution of Cellets® as starter beads in this formulation.
Goals and Formulation
The goal is to investigate a revolutionary platform for sustained-release microencapsulation using the industrial fluidized bed coating technology. Significant challenges of particle cohesion in the process shall be avoided by applying a small quantity of dry powder glidant periodically during the coating process. A highly water-soluble drug, which is metoprolol succinate, is reproducibly microencapsulated on pellet technologies with total pellet sizes of less than 200 µm and a drug release time of 20 hours.
Excipients for extended release profiles
For obtaining a sustained release profile, polymethacrylate-based copolymers, Eudragit RS/RL® 30 D and Eudragit® NM 30 D, were used in combination with a range of anti-tacking agents. The coating onto placebo Cellets® 100 starter beads was performed in a fluidized bed coater with a Wurster insert (Mini-Glatt, Glatt GmbH, Germany) in order to analyze the release profile. Process parameters are shown in Table 2. A small quantity of dry powder glidant was periodically added during processing, so that particle cohesion was eliminated. The optimized excipient composition for the desired release profile is achieved by testing 10 different compositions.
|Inlet air temperature|
|Eudragit RS/RL® 30 D||35-40 °C|
|Eudragit® NM 30 D||30-35 °C|
|Eudragit RS/RL® 30 D||25-30 °C|
|Eudragit® NM 30 D||18-20 °C|
|air flow rate||18 m3/h|
|Atomization pressure||1.5 bar|
|Spray rate||1.1-2.4 g/min|
Table 2: Process parameter for a fluidized bed coater with a Wurster insert. A sustained release drug layer is coated onto placebo Cellets® 100 starter beads.
For drug coating, Cellets® 90 were layered with a suspension of metoprolol succinate in a composition as shown in Table 3.
|Metoprolol succinate||22.8 %|
|talc (Pharma M)||4.0 %|
|Deionized water||72.6 %|
Table 3: Composition of metoprolol succinate suspension for drug layering onto Cellets® 90.
The metoprolol succinate-loaded Cellets® 90 microparticles were successfully coated with the Eudragit® NM 30 D based aqueous dispersion, achieving a high product yield of 99 % and a final particle size of less than 200 µm (D50 value).
The API loaded and coated starter beads are of high sphericity and show a homogeneous and narrow size distribution, which is shown as a SEM (scanning electron microscope) image in Figure 2.
In dissolution tests, an extended release time of up to 20 hours is obtained and can still be varied by the composition of excipients (Figure 3).
This case study is a short abstract of the publication on microparticle coating by Mohylyuk et al. , highlighting the proof of concept for reproducible microencapsulation of a highly water-soluble drug by applying a small quantity of dry powder glidant periodically during Wurster fluidized bed coating. The challenge of particle cohesion in the “down flow” zone was eliminated and a high product yields up to 99% was achieved.
Coated microparticles are in size of less than 200 μm and show a 20 hours sustained drug release profile. These conditions allow the usage in liquid suspensions. Furthermore, the applied technology is scalable. In conclusion, this displays a sustained-release dosage solution, which is suitable for paediatrics and geriatrics with swallowing difficulties.
Dr. Fang Liu and her team are gratefully acknowledged for serving content and data for this note.
Fluid Pharma Ltd
Contact: Dr. Fang LIU
College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB, UK
Tel: +44 1707 28 4273
+44 796 3230 628
Cellets are inert starter cores made of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). They play an important role in new formulations of solid dosage forms. As a carrier system for actives, the chemical inertness and surface smoothness are crucial parameters. Additionally, high level of robustness and sphericity simplify formulations and technical processes, such as fluidized bed technologies for coating and layering. In a joint study between the University of Hertfordshire and Freeman Technology (a Micromeritics company), the effect of pellets’ size on the behavior in a Wurster process is explained. Wurster fluid bed coating of Cellets with particle size larger than 400 µm is unproblematic. However, decreasing the particle size begins to complicate the coating process. So, powder rheology was used to compare Cellets with different particle sizes in terms of their effect on the powder flow in the Wurster fluid bed coater. For deeper knowledge, we strongly recommend reading investigations by V. Mohylyuk et al. 
Cellets® 90, 100, 200 and 350 (D50-size from 94 µm to 424 μm, Ingredientpharm, Switzerland). MCC powder Avicel® PH-102 (supplied by IMCD UK Ltd., UK) is included in the investigations, as it is widely used in industry and can be used by readers for comparison with other studies.
Wurster process is a bottom-spray method, employed as a coating technology, for layering powder-like particles in a fluidized bed system (Figure 1). The process can be separated in different zones of mass flow, such as the down-flow zone or the horizontal transport zone. The flowability in these zones is crucial for homogeneous and efficient coating of the particles.
Hereby, the size of particles might play an important role. The narrow size distribution of MCC pellets is shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3. Measured data is presented in Table 1.
The compact Cellets with fair sphericity, zero friability and a high level of surface smoothness show a fair mass flow rate which is almost independent of particle size at given experimental conditions and was determined by the gravitational funnel method. The reference MCC powder did not flow through the orifice.
|Avicel PH-102||115a||1.85||No flow|
Table 1: Particle size distribution (D50) value and span by laser diffraction (a) and digital microscopy (b), and the mass flow rate by gravitational funnel method (5 mm diameter orifice) for the investigated excipients.
Impact of the Cellets’ size
The impact of the Cellets’ size on bulk powder behavior can only be estimated by screening additional parameters. In addition to the mass flow rate, standard pharmacopoeia methods such as bulk/tapped density were initially employed for the characterization of the powder’s properties. This was extended to rotating drum measurements providing the dynamic angle of repose and dynamic cohesivity index. Via powder rheology the conditioned bulk density, basic flowability energy, specific energy, pressure drop, permeability and compressibility (Figure 4) were obtained .
By picking the compressibility of Cellets at an applied force of 10 kPa normal stress, two key points need to be mentioned: (a) smaller particle size induces a higher rate of compressibility; (b) Cellets are less compressible than the reference MCC powder.
These findings are part of the open question on powder flow in a Wurster process. It is expected, that Cellets with a lower compressibility will result in better flow behavior in the fluidized bed.
The flow of Cellets’ through a Wurster fluid-bed coater is likely to show improved performance as the Cellets’ particle size increases. Among others, a lower compressibility demonstrates a rheological behavior which is superior to MCC.
 Mohylyuk V, Styliari ID, Novykov D, Pikett R, Dattani R. Assessment of the effect of Cellets’ particle size on the flow in a Wurster fluid-bed coater via powder rheology. J D Deliv Sci Tec. 2019; 54: 101320, doi: 10.1016/j.jddst.2019.101320.
The renaissance of micropellets is promoting innovative technologies
In recent years, formulations based on pellets and micropellets have been the trend. New technologies make it possible to circumvent property rights for active ingredients and are therefore very popular with pharmaceutical customers. But which technologies are the most important?
Pellets are the jack-of-alltrades of solid dosage forms. Positioned somewhere between powder and granulate, they make bitter medicine more palatable and can even awaken a child’s instinct to play when the dosage forms are imaginative enough. One well-known example is the Xstraw, a plastic tube shaped like a drinking straw which is filled with pellets of active ingredient, through which children or elderly people can take in the medicine with water. Pellets in tablets are also making a splash – hybrids which combine all the advantages of both dosage forms. The pioneers in the development of these formulations, known as Multiple Unit Pellet Systems (or MUPS for short), was Astra Zeneca in 1999. Their move to embed the proton pump inhibitor Omeprazole in micropellets and then compress these pellets into immediate release tablets was an award-winning one at the time. The development of MUPS and Xstraw symbolizes the impetus pellets have fueled in recent years.
Klaus N. Möller, Head of Business Development at Glatt in Binzen / Germany, explains: “New excipients, coating materials and sophisticated processes allow us to extend the patent protection period and to make the dosage form more attractive.“
The number of patents registered yearly for pellet-based formulations has increased exponentially and is set to continue. According to research performed by IMS Health, the market for OSD (Oral Solid Dosage Forms) is growing by 6 to 8 percent every year. The number of drugs approved by the FDA also reflect this trend: in 2015, more than half were solid products.
Pellets, as defined by pharmacy guru Prof. Peter Kleinebudde are “an isometric agglomerate of powder particles in an approximate spherical or cylindrical form”, and are a task for perfectionists. The smoother and rounder the pellets, the better they are at fulfilling their purpose. The equipment manufacturer Glatt and their specialists from Pharmaceutical Services have been actively ursuing the subject for years.
There are two fundamental ways of making active ingredient pellets: direct pelletization, in which the powdered active ingredient and excipient combine in a matrix, and active ingredient layering, in which uses side spray or Wurster technology to apply the active ingredient to a starter core of sugar or microcrystalline cellulose.
A case for the specialists
One interesting process variant for matrix pellets is the extrusion of wet granulate in a basket extruder and subsequent rounding in a spheronizer. Möller elucidates: “Continuous wet granulation, followed by extrusion, spheronization and drying now make it possible to perform continuous processes”. Active ingredient pellets made like this can then be covered with a functional coating, be continuously mixed with excipients and be directly compressed into a MUPS tablet. The challenge is to avoid separation of the ingredients and destruction of the tablets during pressing.
Glatt, whose portfolio comprises all granulation and pellet manufacturing techniques, has spent recent years developing additional ways of “fine tuning” the pellet process and has opened up a range of new, interesting possibilities for the lifecycle management of active ingredients.
Applying the final touches
But what differentiates the manufacturing of granulates from the manufacturing of pellets? From a pharmaceutical point of view, both processes are closely related and are only separated by the form of the particle, since the ideal shape for pellets is a sphere. There are also definite commonalities in procedure. As Möller explains: “The fluidized bed can be used for both granulation and pelletization. This is why we configure fluidized bed machines on request to be multipurpose installations which then allow the continuous manufacturing of pellets. The individual process modules for direct pelletization with rotor technology, for layering active ingredient and for pellet coating with Wurster technology or the simple drying of wet granulates can be added as necessary. Wurster technology has been used in practice for many years: it is a fluidized bed technique in which starter cores or active ingredient pellets are sprayed with a insists. Möller says: “This method is robust and, because the process is so stable, it’s generally the most popular way to process pellets.”
Depending on the composition of the tablets, processing can last anywhere between eight and ten hours. The knack is knowing how to optimize the efficiency and times of the production process. Additionally, Möller recommends timely expert assistance during the development of the pellet formulation and the production process: “Right from the beginning, it will help to avoid mistakes and to keep an eye on process times and manufacturing costs”.
Micropellets and more
Glatt’s development team demonstrated how to refine an established process with the fluidized bed agglomeration technique known as MicroPx. The trick is to use the Conti process, which was conceived in Pharmaceutical Services’ laboratories in Binzen: first, the active ingredient/excipient liquid is spray-dried to a very fine product dust in a fluidized bed and agglomerated into tiny primary particles. The micropellets then build up, layer by layer, until the desired size is reached. The heart of this technology is a zigzag classifier which continuously ejects particles of sufficient size from the process, while simultaneously allowing smaller particles to reenter the process chamber where they continue to grow. Möller explains that the result of this method are high dosage active ingredient pellets in the size range of 100 to 400 μm with a narrow particle size distribution and content uniformity of a consistent 90 to 95 percent. This means that one significant limitation of former times is now no longer an issue: for many years, the volume of a pellet- filled capsule was larger — and therefore much harder to swallow — than the equivalent tablet with the same dose and composition. The use of microencapsulation, which changes bitter-tasting active ingredients into tasteless microparticles, means the taste is much improved now, too. Micropellets can be also pressed into tablets or MUPS tablets which already begin disintegration in the mouth. But the reason pharmaceutical companies find the MicroPx process so exciting is that it makes completely new formulations possible and therefore allows the legal circumvention of property rights. The technology experts have long known the secret to the perfect pellet, too, an answer provided by Complex Perfect Spheres Technology (CPS). CPS is a souped-up rotor process for fluidized bed machines that uses direct pelletization to yield functionalized pellets and micropellets which are perfectly round and smooth. Unlike classic rotor technology, the modified technique uses a tapered rotating disc which allows the movement of particles to be directed and pelletization to be performed to a defined endpoint. The results are perfectly spherical pellets of exactly defined sizes of between 100 and 1500 μm and extremely narrow size distribution. This is how Glatt’s own Cellets of microcrystalline cellulose are created, which are used as starter cores for pellets and in the Wurster process, for example — thus completing the formulation cycle.
Klaus Möller, Head of Business Development Glatt Process Technology Pharma