CELLETS® are pellets or spheres made of microcrystalline cellulose. The size ranges from 100 µm to 1400 µm. Being neutral starter cores, they can be used as carrier system for low-dosed APIs and allow diverse functional coating. See pellet technologies for a detailed description.


Electron microscopy yield perfect imaging data of the MCC pellets’ surfaces. Magnification: 250x, working distance 8.0 mm, voltage: 10 keV.

Available size classes are (click for more information):

  • CELLETS 100
  • CELLETS 200
  • CELLETS 350
  • CELLETS 500
  • CELLETS 700
  • CELLETS 1000

Any size class of CELLETS® have same striking advantages:

  • low friability and extreme hardness
  • insolubility in water
  • high spherictity
  • smooth surface
  • good monodispersity

See case studies to see these starter pellets in action!

Benefits of multilayer high drug-loaded amorphous solid dispersions

Introduction on amorphous solid dispersions

What is the benefit of multilayer amorphous solid dispersions? Recently, several studies had been performed on amorphous solid dispersions working spheres or starter beads. Starter beads, such as MCC (Microcrystalline Cellulose) spheres are employed due to their high friability and chemical inertness. Some studies are even working on solventless pelletization and amorphization using high shear granulator techniques [1].

Amorphization of poorly water-soluble drugs is a promising approach to improve the solubility and dissolution rate as amorphous solids lack a crystal lattice with long-range order [2]. Unfortunately, a high chemical potential compared to crystalline forms makes amorphous forms thermodynamically unstable. Thus, amorphous drugs exhibit low physical stability and finally lack of recrystallization [3,4]. In turn, surface crystallization is to be minimized.

Multilayer amorphous solid dispersions

This is the key focus of a publication by Eline Boel and Guy Van den Mooter: They had been investigating a promising solution of multilayer high-drug load amorphous solid dispersions, as follows [5]:

Inhibiting surface crystallization is an interesting strategy to enhance the physical stability of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs), still preserving high drug loads. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential surface crystallization inhibitory effect of an additional polymer coating onto ASDs, comprising high drug loads of a fast crystallizing drug, layered onto pellets. For this purpose, bilayer coated pellets were generated with fluid-bed coating, of which the first layer constitutes a solid dispersion of naproxen (NAP) in poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP-VA) in a 40:60 or 35:65 (w/w) ratio, and ethyl cellulose (EC) composes the second layer. The physical stability of these double-layered pellets, in comparison to pellets with an ASD layer only, was assessed under accelerated conditions by monitoring with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) at regular time intervals. Bilayer coated pellets were however found to be physically less stable than pellets with an ASD layer only. Applying the supplementary EC coating layer induced crystallization and heterogeneity in the 40:60 and 35:65 (w/w) NAP-PVP-VA ASDs, respectively, attributed to the initial contact with the solvent. Caution is thus required when applying an additional coating layer on top of an ASD layer with fluid-bed coating, for instance for controlled release purposes, especially if the ASD consists of high loads of a fast crystallizing drug.

Read more on doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.122455.

How about following up studies on ASD formulation with starter beads? Simply, contact us für MCC spheres, such as CELLETS® 700 (700-1000 µm, US mesh 18/25).

Your technology and formulation partner for amorphous solid dispersions:

Glatt in amorphous solid dispersions


[1] K. Kondo, T. Rades, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 181 (2022) 183–194 doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2022.11.011

[2] B.C. Hancock, M. Parks, Pharm. Res. 17 (2000) 397-404.

[3] L.I. Blaabjerg, E. Lindenberg, T. Rades, H. Grohganz, K. Lobmann, Int. J. Pharm. 521 (2017) 232-238.

[4] A. Singh, G. Van den Mooter, Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 100 (2016) 27-50.

[5] E. Boel, G. Van den Mooter, International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2022) 122455. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.122455


We identified, that amorphous solid dispersions gain in importance as they increase the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. There are severall attempts, in which each of them positive aspects and certain issues occur. It’s time, drawing amorphous solids dispersions in a more general context and sheding some more light on elementary aspects. We like to point on an excellent summary given by Thomas Rades and Keita Kondo [Rades_2022]. Before switching over, we like to emphasis and anticipate one message: The lastest attempts for amorphous solid dispersions is using CELLETS® 175 (MCC spheres) which do not only act as drug carrier, but – due to best friability – as milling balls. You might like follow this attempt with MCC starter beads, so please contact us for getting some materials. Let’s now read more from Rades et al.:

Draw-back on Amorphous solid dispersions

Amorphization is a promising approach to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs as amorphous solids lack a crystal lattice with long-range order [1]. However, since amorphous forms are thermodynamically unstable due to a high chemical potential compared to crystalline forms, amorphous drugs exhibit low physical stability and finally recrystallizes [2], [3]. Thus, strategies to stabilize amorphous forms are essential in the development of amorphous products and include the design of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) [4], [5] and co-amorphous formulations [6], [7], [8]. ASDs are the most common approach for preparing amorphous products and involve glass formation by molecularly dispersing drug compounds into an amorphous polymer [4], [5]. However, ASD preparations may require a large quantity of polymer to stabilize amorphized drug due to their low miscibility with drug molecules [9], leading to a high bulk volume of the amorphous products. Co-amorphous systems have recently attracted attention as an alternative approach to amorphous formulations and include the formation of a single amorphous phase in which multiple low molecular weight initially crystalline materials (including drug compounds) are uniformly mixed at the molecular levels [6], [7], [8]. Co-amorphous mixtures typically exhibit high physical stability and dissolution characteristics [6], [7], [10].

Co-amorphous systems are typically classified as drug-drug combinations and drug-excipient mixtures. In the former combinations, amorphous phases comprise two drug compounds, which act as a stabilizer for each other by forming intermolecular interactions [11], [12], [13]. These formulations are expected to offer a combination of drugs to enhance the therapeutic effects but their applicability is limited as drug-drug combinations forming co-amorphous solids are not necessarily suitable for combination therapy, or require fixed doses, not necessarily suitable for co-amorphization. In the co-amorphous drug-excipient systems, low molecular-weight substances (including organic acids [14], sugars [15] and amino acids [16]) act as a co-former and their properties and mixing ratio with the drug affect dissolution characteristics and physical stability of the resulting co-amorphous mixtures [8], [10]. Recently, various combinations of drug compounds and amino acids were systematically investigated [17], [18], indicating that co-amorphous mixtures with high dissolution characteristics and physical stability can be produced by selecting amino acids that can form interactions with the target drug compounds (e.g. pairs of acidic drugs and basic amino acids). Therefore, amino acids are a promising co-former class for co-amorphous formulations.

Preparation of co-amorphous mixtures has been reported using melt quenching [13], [19], spray drying [20], [21], and ball milling [16], [22]. Since the resulting solids are in cake or powder forms (regardless of the preparation method), downstream processes including milling and granulation are usually essential to produce final dosage forms such as capsules and tablets for oral administration [23]. These processes can lead to increased risk of phase separations and crystallization due to moisture, thermal, and mechanical stresses. In ASD systems, to avoid the problems due to the downstream processes, one-step preparations of ASD granules by amorphizing drug compounds during the granulation process using fluidized bed processors [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30] and high shear granulators [31], [32], [33], [34] have been investigated. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports on one-step preparation methods for co-amorphous granules. In the first part of the current study, we investigated the feasibility of solventless amorphization and pelletization using a high shear granulator and could obtain fully amorphized indomethacin-layered pellets by simply mixing indomethacin crystals and microcrystalline cellulose spheres without using solvent and heating. Indomethacin crystals were pulverized and amorphized due to collisions with the spheres and subsequently are deposited on the surface of the spheres. Therefore, we hypothesized that co-amorphous mixture-layered pellets can be produced through a one-step amorphization and pelletization process using this technique, as the preparation of co-amorphous mixtures has previously been performed by mechanical activation [16], [22]. Furthermore, this technique holds promise as an economical as well as sustainable approach to manufacture co-amorphous formulations as the need for solvent and/or heat is eliminated.

In previous research, various combinations of indomethacin and amino acids for co-amorphous preparations were systematically investigated. The findings suggest that arginine is an excellent co-former for indomethacin to prepare co-amorphous mixtures with fast dissolution characteristics and high physical stability [18], as an amorphous salt is formed due to strong interactions between the acidic drug indomethacin and the basic amino acid arginine [35], [36]. In the current study, to investigate whether co-amorphous layer pellets can be produced through a one-step amorphization and pelletization process, indomethacin and arginine were selected as the model drug and the co-former, respectively. In the first part of this study, indomethacin crystals were mixed with microcrystalline cellulose spheres (with various mean diameters of 140 μm, 195 μm, 275 μm, 414 μm, and 649 μm) at a weight ratio of 1:10 using a high shear granulator [added: TMG1/6, Glatt GmbH, Binzen, Germany]. Fully amorphized indomethacin-layered pellets were obtained using carriers of 414 μm in diameter, whereas partially amorphized indomethacin-layered pellets were obtained using carriers of 195 μm in diameter. This difference was likely due to the higher impact forces of larger carriers promoting mechanical activation of indomethacin crystals. In this part of the study, to clarify the effects of using arginine on the amorphization and pelletization of indomethacin, the smaller cellulose spheres of 195 μm in diameter were employed as carrier particles. Indomethacin crystals and arginine crystals were initially mixed at various molar ratios (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1), and then the resulting mixtures were high shear granulated with microcrystalline cellulose spheres at a weight ratio of 1:10. The resulting composite particles were characterized using solid-state and particle analytical techniques. To identify effective co-amorphization approaches, we examined high shear mixing under various jacket temperatures. Furthermore, physical stability and dissolution characteristics of co-amorphous layer pellets were investigated.


[Rades_2022] K. Kondo, T. Rades, 181 (2022) 183-194. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2022.11.011

[1] B.C. Hancock, M. Parks, Pharm. Res. 17 (2000) 397-404.

[2] L. Yu, Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 48 (2001) 27-42.

[3] L.R. Hilden, K.R. Morris, J. Pharm. Sci. 93 (2004) 3-12.

[4] T. Vasconcelos, S. Marques, J. das Neves, B. Sarmento, Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 100 (2016) 85-101.

[5] S. Baghel, H. Cathcart, N.J. O’Reilly, J. Pharm. Sci. 105 (2016) 2527-2544.

[6] R. Laitinen, K. Lobmann, C.J. Strachan, H. Grohganz, T. Rades, Int. J. Pharm. 453 (2013) 65-79.

[7] R.B. Chavan, R. Thipparaboina, D. Kumar, N.R. Shastri, Int. J. Pharm. 515 (2016) 403-415.

[8] S.J. Dengale, H. Grohganz, T. Rades, K. Lobmann, Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 100 (2016) 116-125.

[9] S. Janssens, G. Van den Mooter, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 61 (2009) 1571-1586.

[10] R. Laitinen, K. Lobmann, H. Grohganz, P. Priemel, C.J. Strachan, T. Rades, Int. J. Pharm. 532 (2017) 1-12.

[11] S. Yamamura, H. Gotoh, Y. Sakamoto, Y. Momose, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 49 (2000) 259-265.

[12] M. Allesø, N. Chieng, S. Rehder, J. Rantanen, T. Rades, J. Aaltonen, J. Control. Release 136 (2009) 45-53.

[13] K. Lobmann, R. Laitinen, H. Grohganz, K.C. Gordon, C. Strachan, T. Rades, Mol. Pharm. 8 (2011) 1919-1928.

[14] Q. Lu, G. Zografi, Pharm. Res. 15 (1998) 1202-1206.

[15] M. Descamps, J.F. Willart, E. Dudognon, V. Caron, J. Pharm. Sci. 96 (2007) 1398-1407.

[16] K. Lobmann, H. Grohganz, R. Laitinen, C. Strachan, T. Rades, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 85 (2013) 873-881.

[17] G. Kasten, H. Grohganz, T. Rades, K. Lobmann, Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 95 (2016) 28-35.

[18] G. Kasten, K. Lobmann, H. Grohganz, T. Rades, Int. J. Pharm. 557 (2019) 366-373.

[19] A. Teja, P.B. Musmade, A.B. Khade, S.J. Dengale, Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 78 (2015) 234-244.

[20] A. Beyer, L. Radi, H. Grohganz, K. Lobmann, T. Rades, C.S. Leopold, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 104 (2016) 72-81.

[21] E. Lenz, K.T. Jensen, L.I. Blaabjerg, K. Knop, H. Grohganz, K. Lobmann, T. Rades,

  1. Kleinebudde, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 96 (2015) 44-52.

[22] K.T. Jensen, F.H. Larsen, C. Cornett, K. Lobmann, H. Grohganz, T. Rades, Mol. Pharm. 12 (2015) 2484-2492.

[23] B. Demuth, Z.K. Nagy, A. Balogh, T. Vigh, G. Marosi, G. Verreck, I. Van Assche, M.E. Brewster, Int. J. Pharm. 486 (2015) 268-286.

[24] D.B. Beten, K. Amighi, A.J. Möes, Pharm. Res. 12 (1995) 1269-1272.

[25] H.-O. Ho, H.-L. Su, T. Tsai, M.-T. Sheu, Int. J. Pharm. 139 (1996) 223-229.

[26] N. Sun, X. Wei, B. Wu, J. Chen, Y. Lu, W. Wu, Powder Technol. 182 (2008) 72-80.

[27] A. Dereymaker, D.J. Scurr, E.D. Steer, C.J. Roberts, G. Van den Mooter, Mol. Pharm. 14 (2017) 959-973.

[28] A. Dereymaker, J. Pelgrims, F. Engelen, P. Adriaensens, G. Van den Mooter, Mol. Pharm. 14 (2017) 974-983.

[29] T. Oshima, R. Sonoda, M. Ohkuma, H. Sunada, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 55 (2007) 1557-1562.

[30] H.J. Kwon, E.J. Heo, Y.H. Kim, S. Kim, Y.H. Hwang, J.M. Byun, S.H. Cheon, S.Y. Park, D.Y. Kim, K.H. Cho, H.J. Maeng, D.J. Jang, Pharmaceutics 11(3) (2019) 136.

[31] N.S. Trasi, S. Bhujbal, Q.T. Zhou, L.S. Taylor, Int. J. Pharm. X 1 (2019) 100035.

[32] A. Seo, P. Holm, H.G. Kristensen, T. Schæfer, Int. J. Pharm. 259 (2003) 161-171.

[33] T. Vilhelmsen, H. Eliasen, T. Schaefer, Int. J. Pharm. 303 (2005) 132-142.

[34] Y.C. Chen, H.O. Ho, J.D. Chiou, M.T. Sheu, Int. J. Pharm. 473 (2014) 458-468.

[35] K.T. Jensen, L.I. Blaabjerg, E. Lenz, A. Bohr, H. Grohganz, P. Kleinebudde, T. Rades, K. Lobmann, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 68 (2016) 615-624.

[36] K.T. Jensen, F.H. Larsen, K. Lobmann, T. Rades, H. Grohganz, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 107 (2016) 32-39.

More information on ASD

Read more about amorphous solid dispersions in our application notes.


This case study is a short abstract on spouted bed characteristics, following closely findings in the publication by J. Vanamu and A. Sahoo [1].

Spouted bed systems are of highest importance for all powder processing industries, and more specific in pharmaceutical industry for coating and drying in pellet technologies [2]. These systems offer manufacturing particularly fine and temperature-sensitive particles from small to large scale: laboratory systems are capable of processing product volumes of very few grams, while production systems can handle capacities of several tons [3].

But how to control conditions in spouted beds for efficient process applications, like mixing, coating, or drying?

There might be certain reasons, that the hydrodynamic behavior of the spouted bed in the pharmaceutical industries is less investigated. The referred publication shed some light on the hydrodynamic characteristics of a spouted bed where the MCC Spheres (CELLETS®) are adopted as the bed material. These starter cores are ideal model systems due to their perfect sphericity and zero-level friability. At the same time, smooth and defined surface structure initiate perfect modelling conditions in the spouted bed dynamics.


CELLETS®, made of 100% Microcrystalline Cellulose, have been used as bed material. The physical properties of the CELLETS® are shown in Table 1. The CELLETS® particle morphology is represented in Figure 1.

Parameter Value
CELLETS® 700 and CELLETS® 1000
Size distribution 700-1000 µm (CELLETS® 700)

1000-1400 µm (CELLETS® 1000)

Bulk density 800 kg/m3
Particle sphericity > 0.9
Void fraction 0.42
Geldart classification B

Table 1: Physical properties of the CELLETS®.

SEM micrographs of CELLETS® 700

Figure 1: SEM micrographs of CELLETS® 700, found in [1].

Spouted bed: experiment setup

There are some international players on the market of spouted bed technologies, such as Glatt which seems to be the major one (Figure 2). In this framework, a self-made setup is used for experiments. The experiments that have been carried out in a column, which is fabricated from a Perspex sheet. This column consists of a cylindrical section of height 0.53 m and a diameter of the cylinder of 0.135 m. The column further converged the diameter of the cylinder to 0.05 m as a conical bottom having a length of 0.47 m. The spouting air is supplied by a compressed air line is controlled by a gas regulator. The airflow is controlled by a gate valve and a mesh plate having a mesh size less than the size of the bed material is employed as a separator preventing the backflow of the bed material. Images are captured using a high-speed video camera to gain more details of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the flow pattern inside the spouted bed geometry.

Spouted bed

Figure 2: Scheme of a spouted bed (Glatt, Germany).

Experiments & spouted bed results

Experiments are carried out with three different static bed heights of shallow depth wherein the bed height is in the range of factor 2-3 of the Inlet diameter using two different particle distribution classes at 500-710 µm and 700-1000 µm, respectively. Analyzed parameters are the pressure drop across the bed, the bed expansion ratio, and the clusters concerning the superficial gas velocity are focused in the following.

J. Vanamu et al. found that the “bed expansion ratio increases with increasing superficial gas velocity until the onset of external spouting, further increase in the superficial gas velocity, the bed expansion ratio decreases. With increasing the volume of bed, the bed expansion ratio decreases. In a larger volume of bed, the particles tend to spout into the freeboard region rather than expanding with higher superficial gas velocity”. Initial spouting is symmetric, but with increasing superficial gas velocity spouting becomes asymmetric, and asymmetry is more pronounced or starts at lower superficial gas velocities for smaller particles. This agrees with existing theories of hydrodynamic behavior in a fluidized environment. Respecting the necessarity of a proper flow behavior for mixing, coating or drying applications in drug processing, symmetric spouting is essential. In turn, the superficial gas velocity may be kept low.

In case that high superficial gas velocity regimes are required for the operations a draft tube may be installed within the column to achieve the symmetric spout formation.


This case study highlights the Hydrodynamic behavior of MCC spheres in a spouted bed using image processing method. MCC spheres in the range between 500-710 µm and 700-1000 µm had been employed. All spheres showed a symmetric and asymmetric spouting in the spouted bed. With increasing superficial gas velocity, the fully suspended particles are limited to a certain height in the freeboard region due to the gas-solid crossflow. A change from symmetric to asymmetric spouting is observed with increasing superficial gas velocity.

Keeping the conditions efficient for the mixing, coating or drying applications requires finally to suppress high superficial gas velocities, or changing the setup in such way, that symmetric spouting conditions are kept upright even at higher superficial gas velocities.


[1] J. Vanamu and A. Sahoo, Particuology 76 (2023) 101

[2] L. A. P. de Freitas, Particuology 42 (2019) 126

[3] Glatt GmbH, Binzen, Germany. Online on Nov 8, 2022: Spouted bed systems – Glatt – Integrated Process Solutions

Great thanks to Arihant Innochem Pvt. Ltd. who supplied and donated CELLETS® for this study.

Cellets list of publication

Selected Scientific literature

Please, find scientific literature on CELLETS®. This list is constantly updated and does not claim to be complete. If you are author, scientist or R&D specialist, please submit your present publication to us for improving the visibility.



Research article
Solventless amorphization and pelletization using a high shear granulator. Part II; Preparation of co-amorphous mixture-layered pellets using indomethacin and arginine
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics (2022) 181, 183-194. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2022.11.011
K. Kondo, T. Rades

Research article
Solventless amorphization and pelletization using a high shear granulator. Part I; feasibility study using indomethacin
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics (2022) 181, 147-158. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2022.11.010
K. Kondo, T. Rades

Research article
Hydrodynamic behaviour of CELLETS® (Ph.Eur./USP) in a spouted bed using image processing method
Particuology (2023), 76, 101-112, doi:10.1016/j.partic.2022.07.009
J. Vanamu, A. Sahoo

Research article
Application of different models to evaluate the key factors of fluidized bed layering granulation and their influence on granule characteristics
Powder Technology (2022), 408:117737. doi: 10.1016/j.powtec.2022.117737
R. Maharjan, S. H. Jeong

Research article
Evaluation of gravitational consolidation of binary powder mixtures by modified Heckel equation
Powder Technology (2022), 408:117729. doi: 10.1016/j.powtec.2022.117729
P. Svačinová, O. Macho, Ž. Jarolímová, M. Kuentz, Ľ. Gabrišová and Z. Šklubalová

Research article
Integrated Purification and Formulation of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient via Agitated Bed Crystallization and Fluidized Bed Processing
Pharmaceutics (2022), 14(5)1058. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14051058
M. W. Stocker, M. J. Harding, V. Todaro, A. M. Healy and S. Ferguson

Research article
Relative bioavailability enhancement of simvastatin via dry emulsion systems: comparison of spray drying and fluid bed layering technology
Eur J Pharm Biopharm (2021), S0939-6411(21)00353-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2021.12.004
M. Pohlen, J. Aguiar Zdovc, J. Trontelj, J. Mravljak, M. G. Matjaž, I. Grabnar, T. Snoj and R. Dreu

Research article
Correlating Granule Surface Structure Morphology and Process Conditions in Fluidized Bed Layering Spray Granulation
KONA Powder and Particle Journal (2021), DOI:10.14356/kona.2022016
M. Orth, P. Kieckhefen, S. Pietsch and S. Heinrich

Research article
Measurement of hydrogen peroxide vapor in powders with potassium titanium oxide oxalate loaded cellulose pellets as probes
AAPS PharmSciTech, Volume 21(1):3, 11 Nov 2019
Maria H. Kastvig, Johan P. Bøtker, Ge Ge, Mogens L. Andersen

Research article
Wurster Fluidised Bed Coating of Microparticles: Towards Scalable Production of Oral Sustained-Release Liquid Medicines for Patients with Swallowing Difficulties
AAPS PharmSciTech, Volume 21(1):3, 11 Nov 2019
Valentyn Mohylyuk, Kavil Patel, Nathan Scott, Craig Richardson, Darragh Murnane, Fang Liu

Research article
Assessment of the effect of Cellets’ particle size on the flow in a Wurster fluid-bed coater via powder rheology
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, Volume 54, December 2019, 101320
Valentyn Mohylyuk, Ioanna Danai Styliari, Dmytryi Novykov, Reiss Pikett, Rajeev Dattani

Research article
Measuring segregation characteristics of industrially relevant granular mixtures: Part II – Experimental application and validation
Powder Technology, Volume 368, 15 May 2020, Pages 278-285
Alexander M. Fry, Vidya Vidyapati, John P. Hecht, Paul B. Umbanhowar, Julio M. Ottinoa, Richard M. Lueptow

Research article
Influence of Non-Water-Soluble Placebo Pellets of Different Sizes on the Characteristics of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Manufactured by Freeze-Drying
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 102, Issue 6, June 2013, Pages 1786-1799
Ulrike Stange, Christian Führling, Henning Gieseler

Short communication
Introduction of the energy to break an avalanche as a promising parameter for powder flowability prediction
Powder Technology, Volume 375, 20 September 2020, Pages 33-41
Žofie Trpělková, Hana Hurychová, Martin Kuentz, Barbora Vraníková, Zdenka Šklubalová

Research article
Particle electrification in an apparatus with a draft tube operating in a fast circulating dilute spout-fluid bed regime
Particuology, Volume 42, February 2019, Pages 146-153
Wojciech Ludwig

Research article
Attrition and abrasion resistance of particles coated with pre-mixed polymer coating systems
Powder Technology, Volume 230, November 2012, Pages 1-13
G. Perfetti, F. Depypere, S. Zafari, P. van Hee, W.J. Wildeboer, G. M. H. Meesters

Research article
Dry particle high coating of biopowders: An energy approach
Powder Technology, Volume 208, Issue 2, 25 March 2011, Pages 378-382
S. Otles, O. Lecoq, J. A. Dodds

Research article
Labscale fluidized bed granulator instrumented with non-invasive process monitoring devices
Chemical Engineering Journal, Volume 164, Issues 2–3, 1 November 2010, Pages 268-274
Jari T. T. Leskinen, Matti-Antero H. Okkonen, Maunu M. Toiviainen, Sami Poutiainen, Mari Tenhunen, Pekka Teppola, Reijo Lappalainen, Jarkko Ketolainen, Kristiina Järvinen

Research article
Development and evaluation of budesonide-based modified-release liquid oral dosage forms
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, Volume 54, December 2019, 101273
Federica Ronchi, Antonio Sereno, Maxime Paide, Ismaël Hennia, Pierre Sacré, George Guillaume, Vincent Stéphenne, Jonathan Goole, Karim Amighi

Research article
Water-mediated solid-state transformation of a polymorphic drug during aqueous-based drug-layer coating of pellets
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 456, Issue 1, 1 November 2013, Pages 41-48
Andres Lust, Satu Lakio, Julia Vintsevits, Jekaterina Kozlova, Peep Veski, Jyrki Heinämäki, Karin Kogermann

Research article
Two-dimensional particle shape analysis from chord measurements to increase accuracy of particle shape determination
Powder Technology, Volume 284, November 2015, Pages 25-31
D. Petrak, S. Dietrich, G. Eckardt, M. Köhler

Research article
Evaluation of in-line particle measurement with an SFT-probe as monitoring tool for process automation using a new time-based buffer approach
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 128, 1 February 2019, Pages 162-170
Theresa Reimers, Jochen Thies, Stefan Dietrich, Julian Quodbach, Miriam Pein-Hackelbusch

Research article
In-line particle size measurement and process influences on rotary fluidized bed agglomeration
Powder Technology, Volume 364, 15 March 2020, Pages 673-679
Marcel Langner, Ivonne Kitzmann, Anna-Lena Ruppert, Inken Wittich, Bertram Wolf

Research article
In vitro and sensory tests to design easy-to-swallow multi-particulate formulations
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 132, 30 April 2019, Pages 157-162
Marco Marconati, Felipe Lopez, Catherine Tuleu, Mine Orlu, Marco Ramaioli

Research article
Material specific drying kinetics in fluidized bed drying under mechanical vibration using the reaction engineering approach
Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 31, Issue 12, December 2020, Pages 4699-4713
Soeren E. Lehmann, Tobias Oesau, Alfred Jongsma, Fredrik Innings, Stefan Heinrich

Short communication
Novel production method of tracer particles for residence time measurements in gas-solid processes
Powder Technology, Volume 338, October 2018, Pages 1-6
Swantje Pietsch, Paul Kieckhefen, Michael Müller, Michael Schönherr, Frank Kleine Jäger, Stefan Heinrich

Research article
Quantitative bin flow analysis of particle discharge using X-ray radiography
Powder Technology, Volume 344, 15 February 2019, Pages 693-705
Sanket Bacchuwar, Vidya Vidyapati, Ke-ming Quan, Chen-Luh Lin, Jan D. Miller

Research article
Adjustment of triple shellac coating for precise release of bioactive substances with different physico-chemical properties in the ileocolonic region
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 564, 10 June 2019, Pages 472-484>
Eva-Maria Theismann, Julia Katharina Keppler, Jörg-Rainer Knipp, Daniela Fangmann, Esther Appel, Stanislav N. Gorb, Georg H. Waetzig, Stefan Schreiber, Matthias Laudes, Karin Schwarz

Research article
The effect of administration media on palatability and ease of swallowing of multiparticulate formulations
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 551, Issues 1–2, 15 November 2018, Pages 67-75
Felipe L. Lopez, Terry B. Ernest, Mine Orlu, CatherineTuleu

Research article
Production of composite particles using an innovative continuous dry coating process derived from extrusion
Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 28, Issue 11, November 2017, Pages 2875-2885
Fanny Cavaillès, Romain Sescousse, Alain Chamayou, Laurence Galet

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International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 585, 30 July 2020, 119562
Nathan Scott, Kavil Patel, Tariro Sithole, Konstantina Xenofontos, Valentyn Mohylyuk, Fang Liu

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Solidification of carvedilol loaded SMEDDS by swirling fluidized bed pellet coating
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 566, 20 July 2019, Pages 89-100
J. Mandić, M. Luštrik, F. Vrečer, M. Gašperlin, A. Zvonar Pobirk

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In-line particle size measurement and agglomeration detection of pellet fluidized bed coating by Spatial Filter Velocimetry
Powder Technology, Volume 301, November 2016, Pages 261-267
Dimitri Wiegel, Günter Eckardt, Florian Priese, Bertram Wolf

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Easy to Swallow “Instant” Jelly Formulations for Sustained Release Gliclazide Delivery
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 109, Issue 8, August 2020, Pages 2474-2484
Simmi Patel, Nathan Scott, Kavil Patel, Valentyn Mohylyuk, William J. McAuley, Fang Liu

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Effect of formulation variables on oral grittiness and preferences of multiparticulate formulations in adult volunteers
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 92, 20 September 2016, Pages 156-162
Felipe L. Lopez, Alexandra Bowles, Mine Orlu Gul, David Clapham, Terry B. Ernest, Catherine Tuleu

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Preparation and characterization of controlled-release doxazosin mesylate pellets using a simple drug layering-aquacoating technique
Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation (2013), 43:333–342. doi: 10.1007/s40005-013-0077-0
H. A. Hazzah, M. A. EL-Massik, O. Y. Abdallah & H. Abdelkader

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A density based segmentation method to determine the coordination number of a particulate system
Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 66, Issue 24, 15 December 2011, Pages 6385-6392
Thanh T. Nguyen, Thanh N. Tran, Tofan A. Willemsz, Henderik W. Frijlink, Tuomas Ervasti, Jarkko Ketolainen, Kees van der Voort Maarschalk

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X-ray micro tomography and image analysis as complementary methods for morphological characterization and coating thickness measurement of coated particles
Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 21, Issue 6, November 2010, Pages 663-675
Giacomo Perfetti, Elke Van de Casteele, Bernd Rieger, Willem J. Wildeboer, Gabrie M.H. Meesters

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Development of high drug loaded pellets by Design of Experiment and population balance model calculation
Powder Technology, Volume 241, June 2013, Pages 149-157
Florian Priese, Bertram Wolf

Research article
Quantification of swelling characteristics of pharmaceutical particles
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 590, 30 November 2020, 119903
Mithushan Soundaranathan, Pattavet Vivattanaseth, Erin Walsh, Kendal Pitt, Blair Johnston, Daniel Markl

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Numerical study of the hydrodynamics of fluidized beds operated under sub-atmospheric pressure
Chemical Engineering Journal, Volume 372, 15 September 2019, Pages 1134-1153
Sayali Zarekar, Andreas Bück, Michael Jacob, Evangelos Tsotsas

Research article
Granule size distribution of tablets
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 99, Issue 4, April 2010, Pages 2061-2069
Satu Virtanen, Osmo Antikainen, Heikki Räikkönen, Jouko Yliruusi

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International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 540, Issues 1–2, 5 April 2018, Pages 120-131
Josefina Nordström, Göran Alderborn, Göran Frenning

Research article
New insights into segregation during tabletting
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 397, Issues 1–2, 15 September 2010, Pages 19-26
S. Lakio, S. Siiriä, H. Räikkönen, S. Airaksinen, T. Närvänen, O. Antikainen, J.Yliruusi

Research article
Passive acoustic emission monitoring of pellet coat thickness in a fluidized bed
Powder Technology, Volume 286, December 2015, Pages 172-180
Taylor Sheahan, Lauren Briens

Research article
Attrition strength of different coated agglomerates
Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 63, Issue 5, March 2008, Pages 1361-1369
B. van Laarhoven, S.C.A. Wiers, S.H. Schaafsma, G.M.H. Meesters

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Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2014, Pages 3657-3665
Julian Quodbach, Peter Kleinebudde

Research article
Particle sizing measurements in pharmaceutical applications: Comparison of in-process methods versus off-line methods
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 85, Issue 3, Part B, November 2013, Pages 1006-1018
Ana F.T. Silva, Anneleen Burggraeve, Quenten Denon, Paul Van der Meeren, Niklas Sandler, Tom Van Den Kerkhof, Mario Hellings, Chris Vervaet, Jean Paul Remon, João Almeida Lopes, Thomas De Beer

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Effects of pharmaceutical processes on the quality of ethylcellulose coated pellets: Quality by design approach
Powder Technology, Volume 339, November 2018, Pages 25-38
Prakash Thapa, Ritu Thapa, Du Hyung Choi, Seong Hoon Jeong

Research article
Physical properties of pharmaceutical pellets
Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 86, 4 February 2013, Pages 50-60
Rok Šibanc, Teja Kitak, Biljana Govedarica, StankoSrčič Rok Dreu

Research article
Determination of the release mechanism of Theophylline from pellets coated with Surelease®—A water dispersion of ethyl cellulose
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 528, Issues 1–2, 7 August 2017, Pages 345-353
Jurgita Kazlauske, Maria Margherita Cafaro, Diego Caccavo, Mariagrazia Marucci, Gaetano Lamberti, Anna Angela Barba, Anette Larsson

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The analysis of the influence of the normal restitution coefficient model on calculated particles velocities by means of Eulerian-Lagrangian approach
Powder Technology, Volume 344, 15 February 2019, Pages 140-151
Wojciech Ludwig, PaweƚPłuszka

Research article
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International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 499, Issues 1–2, 29 February 2016, Pages 271-279
Eva Julia Laukamp, Klaus Knop, Markus Thommes, Joerg Breitkreutz

Research article
A density-based segmentation for 3D images, an application for X-ray micro-tomography
Analytica Chimica Acta, Volume 725, 6 May 2012, Pages 14-21
Thanh N. Tran, Thanh T. Nguyen, Tofan A. Willemsz, Gijsvan Kessel, Henderik W. Frijlink, Kees van der Voort Maarschalk

Research article
Continuous pellet coating in a Wurster fluidized bed process
Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 86, 4 February 2013, Pages 87-98
N. Hampel, A. Bück, M. Peglow, E. Tsotsas

Research article
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Powder Technology, Volume 356, November 2019, Pages 139-147
Swantje Pietsch, Anna Peter, Patrick Wahl, Johannes Khinast, Stefan Heinrich

Research article
Effects of humidity on cellulose pellets loaded with potassium titanium oxide oxalate for detection of hydrogen peroxide vapor in powders
Powder Technology, Volume 366, 15 April 2020, Pages 348-357
Maria H. Kastvig, Cosima Hirschberg, Frans W.J. Van Den Berg, Jukka Rantanen, Mogens L. Andersen

Research article
Euler-Lagrange model of particles circulation in a spout-fluid bed apparatus for dry coating
Powder Technology, Volume 328, 1 April 2018, Pages 375-388
Wojciech Ludwig, Paweł Płuszka

Research article
Direct Drug Loading into Preformed Porous Solid Dosage Units by the Controlled Particle Deposition (CPD), a New Concept for Improved Dissolution Using SCF-Technology
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Powder Technology, Volume 378, Part A, 22 January 2021, Pages 51-59
B.M. Woerthmann, J.A. Lindner, T. Kovacevic, P. Pergam, F. Schmid, H. Briesen

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New spout-fluid bed apparatus for electrostatic coating of fine particles and encapsulation
Powder Technology, Volume 225, July 2012, Pages 52-57
Roman G. Szafran, Wojciech Ludwig, Andrzej Kmiec

Research article
Impact of polymers on dissolution performance of an amorphous gelleable drug from surface-coated beads
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 37, Issue 1, 11 April 2009, Pages 1-10
Chon gFan, Rashmi Pai-Thakur, Wantanee Phuapradit, Lin Zhang, Hung Tian, Waseem Malick, Navnit Shah, M. Serpil Kislalioglu

Research article
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International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 549, Issues 1–2, 5 October 2018, Pages 293-298
Allan Carter, Lauren Briens

Research article
Multivariate calibration of the degree of crystallinity in intact pellets by X-ray powder diffraction
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 502, Issues 1–2, 11 April 2016, Pages 107-116
Krisztina Nikowitz, Attila Domján, Klára Pintye-Hódi, Géza Regdon jr.

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Tabletability Modulation Through Surface Engineering
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 104, Issue 8, August 2015, Pages 2645-2648
Frederick Osei-Yeboah, Changquan Calvin Sun

Research article
Evaluation of extrusion/spheronisation, layering and compaction for the preparation of an oral, multi-particulate formulation of viable, hIL-10 producing Lactococcus lactis
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 59, Issue 1, January 2005, Pages 9-15
Nathalie Huyghebaert, An Vermeire, Sabine Neirynck, Lothar Steidler, Eric Remaut, Jean Paul Remon

Research article
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Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 230, 15 February 2020, 115650
Jun Yang, Mingyue Shen, Huiliang Wen, Yu Luo, Rong Huang, Liyuan Rong, Jianhua Xie

Research article
In-line monitoring of multi-layered film-coating on pellets using Raman spectroscopy by MCR and PLS analyses
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 114, May 2017, Pages 194-201
Jin Hisazumi, Peter Kleinebudde

Short communication
Can encapsulation lengthen the shelf-life of probiotic bacteria in dry products?
International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 136, Issue 3, 1 January 2010, Pages 364-367
F. Weinbreck, I. Bodnár, M.L. Marco

Research article
Towards improving quality of video-based vehicle counting method for traffic flow estimation
Signal Processing, Volume 120, March 2016, Pages 672-681
Yingjie Xia, Xingmin Shi, Guanghua Song, Qiaolei Geng, Yuncai Liu

Research article
Sifting segregation of ideal blends in a two-hopper tester: Segregation profiles and segregation magnitudes
Powder Technology, Volume 331, 15 May 2018, Pages 60-67
Mariagrazia Marucci, Banien Al-Saaigh, Catherine Boissier, Marie Wahlgren, Håkan Wikström

Conference abstract
Multiple unit mini-tablets: Content uniformity issues
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 536, Issue 2, 5 February 2018, Pages 506-507
Anna Kira Adam, Jörg Breitkreutz

Research article
Study of the recrystallization in coated pellets – Effect of coating on API crystallinity
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 48, Issue 3, 14 February 2013, Pages 563-571
Krisztina Nikowitz, Klára Pintye-Hódi, Géza Regdon Jr.

Research article
Optimisation of an enteric coated, layered multi-particulate formulation for ileal delivery of viable recombinant Lactococcus lactis
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 69, Issue 3, August 2008, Pages 969-976
Nele Poelvoorde, Nathalie Huyghebaert, Chris Vervaet, Jean-Paul Remon

Research article
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Powder Technology, Volume 329, 15 April 2018, Pages 167-180
Paul Kieckhefen, Swantje Pietsch, Moritz Höfert, Michael Schönherr, Stefan Heinrich, Frank Kleine Jäger

Research article
Analysis of pellet coating uniformity using a computer scanner
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 533, Issue 2, 30 November 2017, Pages 377-382
Rok Šibanc, Matevž Luštrik, Rok Dreu

Conference abstract
Multiple-unit orodispersible mini-tablets
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 511, Issue 2, 25 September 2016, Page 1128
Anna Kira Adam, Christian Zimmer, Stefan Rauscher, Jörg Breitkreutz

Research article
A novel method of quantifying the coating progress in a three-dimensional prismatic spouted bed
Particuology, Volume 42, February 2019, Pages 137-145
Swantje Pietsch, Finn Ole Poppinga, Stefan Heinrich, Michael Müller, Michael Schönherr, Frank Kleine Jäger

Research article
Dynamic rearrangement of disulfide bridges influences solubility of whey protein coatings
International Dairy Journal, Volume 18, Issue 5, May 2008, Pages 566-573
René Floris, Igor Bodnár, Fanny Weinbreck, Arno C. Alting

Research article
Study of the preparation of a multiparticulate drug delivery system with a layering technique
Powder Technology, Volume 205, Issues 1–3, 10 January 2011, Pages 155-159
Krisztina Nikowitz, Péter Kása Jr., Klára Pintye-Hódi, Géza Regdon Jr.

Research article
Simulation of pellet coating in Wurster coaters
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 590, 30 November 2020, 119931
Hamid Reza Norouzi

Research article
Evaluation of in-line spatial filter velocimetry as PAT monitoring tool for particle growth during fluid bed granulation
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 76, Issue 1, September 2010, Pages 138-146
A. Burggraeve, T. Van Den Kerkhof, M. Hellings, J.P. Remon, C. Vervaet, T. De Beera

Short communication
Raman spectroscopic investigation of film thickness
Polymer Testing, Volume 28, Issue 7, October 2009, Pages 770-772
T. Sovány, K. Nikowitz, G. Regdon Jr., P. Kása Jr., K. Pintye-Hódi

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International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 549, Issues 1–2, 5 October 2018, Pages 325-334
Mitja Pohlen, Luka Pirker, Matevž Luštrik, Rok Dreu

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Ann-Sofie Persson, Göran Frenning

Research article
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Nathalie Huyghebaert, An Vermeire, Pieter Rottiers, Erik Remaut, Jean Paul Remon

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International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 567, 15 August 2019, 118416
Federica Ronchi, Antonio, Sereno, Maxime Paide, Pierre Sacré, George Guillaume, Vincent Stéphenne, Jonathan Goole, Karim Amighi

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Particuology Volume 10, Issue 5, October 2012, Pages 619-627
Henrik Ehlers, Jyrki Heinämäki, Jouko Yliruusi

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In-line spatial filtering velocimetry for particle size and film thickness determination in fluidized-bed pellet coating processes
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 88, Issue 3, November 2014, Pages 931-938
Friederike Folttmann, Klaus Knop, Peter Kleinebudde, Miriam Pein

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Liquid absorption capacity of carriers in the food technology
Powder Technology, Volume 134, Issue 3, 30 September 2003, Pages 201-209
Heidi Lankes, Karl Sommer, Bernd Weinreich

Research article
Asymmetric distribution in twin screw granulation
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 106, September 2016, Pages 50-58
Tim Chan Seem, Neil A. Rowson, Ian Gabbott, Marcelde Matas, Gavin K. Reynolds, AndyIngram

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European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 111, 1 January 2018, Pages 278-292
Klemen Korasa, Franc Vrečer

Research article
Effect of annealing time and addition of lactose on release of a model substance from Eudragit® RS coated pellets produced by a fluidized bed coater
Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 89, Issue 6, June 2011, Pages 697-705
Ulrich M. Heckötter, Anette Larsson, Pornsak Sriamornsak, Mont Kumpugdee-Vollrath

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Modeling of particle velocities in an apparatus with a draft tube operating in a fast circulating dilute spout-fluid bed regime
Powder Technology, Volume 319, September 2017, Pages 332-345
Wojciech Ludwig, Daniel Zając

Research article
On the properties and application of beeswax, carnauba wax and palm fat mixtures for hot melt coating in fluidized beds
Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 3, March 2018, Pages 781-788
M.G. Müller, J.A. Lindner, H. Briesen, K. Sommer, P. Foerst

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Powder Technology, Volume 235, February 2013, Pages 640-651
Matevž Luštrik, Rok Šibanc, Stanko Srčič, Matjaž Perpar, Iztok Žun, Rok Dreu

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International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 581, 15 May 2020, 119217
Matteo Cerea, Anastasia Foppoli, Luca Palugan, Alic Melocchi, Lucia Zema, Alessandra Maroni, Andrea Gazzaniga

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Anna Novikova, Jens M. Carstensen, Thomas Rades, Claudia S. Leopold

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L. Suhrenbrock, G. Radtke, K. Knop, P. Kleinebudde

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International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 480, Issues 1–2, 1 March 2015, Pages 15-26
Sheng-Feng Hung, Chien-Ming Hsieh, Ying-Chen Chen, Cheng-Mao Lin, Hsiu-O Ho, Ming-Thau Sheu

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European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 73, Issue 2, October 2009, Pages 280-284
Nele Poelvoorde, Hans Verstraelen, Rita Verhelst, Bart Saerens, Ellen De Backer, Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago, Chris Vervaet, Mario Vaneechoutte, Fabienne De Boeck, Luc Van Borteld, Marleen Temmerman, Jean-Paul Remon

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Procedia Engineering, Volume 102, 2015, Pages 81-88
Olivier Lecoq, Fredj Kaouach, Alain Chamayou

Research article
In-line particle sizing for real-time process control by fibre-optical spatial filtering technique (SFT)
Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 22, Issue 2, March 2011, Pages 203-208
Petrak Dieter, Dietrich Stefan, Eckardt Günter, Köhler Michael

Research article
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Procedia Engineering, Volume 42, 2012, Pages 437-446
W. Ludwig, R.G. Szafran, A. Kmiec, J. Dziak

Research article
Novel hydrophilic matrix system with non-uniform drug distribution for zero-order release kinetics
Journal of Controlled Release, Volume 287, 10 October 2018, Pages 247-256
Matteo Cerea, Alessandra Maroni, Luca Palugan, Marco Bellini, Anastasia Foppoli, Alice Melocchi, Lucia Zema, Andrea Gazzaniga

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Pinak Khatri, Dipen Desai, Namdev Shelke, Tamara Minko

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Powder Technology, Volume 316, 1 July 2017, Pages 233-244
H.R. Norouzi, R. Zarghami, N. Mostoufi

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European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 88, Issue 3, November 2014, Pages 879-885
Ira Soppela, Osmo Antikainen, Niklas Sandler, Jouko Yliruusi

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Powder Technology, Volume 360, 15 January 2020, Pages 1126-1133
Doris L. Wong, Anna-Lena Wirsching, Kai Betz, Andreas Reinbeck, Hans-Ulrich Moritz, Werner Pauer

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Powder Technology, Volume 283, October 2015, Pages 373-379
Taylor Sheahan, Lauren Briens

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Powder Technology, Volume 305, January 2017, Pages 591-596
Frederick Osei-Yeboah, Yidan Lan, Changquan Calvin Sun

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Evaluation of pellet cycle times in a Wurster chamber using a photoluminescence method
Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 132, April 2018, Pages 1170-1179
Domen Kitak, Rok Šibanc, Rok Dreu

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Application properties of oral gels as media for administration of minitablets and pellets to paediatric patients
International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Volume 460, Issues 1–2, 2 January 2014, Pages 228-233

Anna Kluk, Malgorzata Sznitowska

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Powder Technology, Volume 330, 1 May 2018, Pages 114-124
Matevž Luštrik, Rok Dreu, Matjaž Perpar

Research article
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Journal of Controlled Release, Volume 128, Issue 2, 4 June 2008, Pages 149-156
Simon Ensslin, Klaus Peter Moll, Kurt Paulus, Karsten Mäder

Research article
In-line monitoring of pellet coating thickness growth by means of visual imaging
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 470, Issues 1–2, 15 August 2014, Pages 8-14
Nika Oman Kadunc, Rok Šibanc, Rok Dreu, Boštjan Likar, Dejan Tomaževič

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Optical microscopy as a comparative analytical technique for single-particle dissolution studies
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 469, Issue 1, 20 July 2014, Pages 10-16
Sami Svanbäck, Henrik Ehlers, Jouko Yliruusi

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Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 177, 1 December 2017, Pages 105-115
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European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 87, Issue 1, May 2014, Pages 107-113
Lieselotte De Smet, Lien Saerens, Thomas De Beer, Robert Carleer, Peter Adriaensens, Jan Van Bocxlaer, Chris Vervaet, Jean PaulRemon

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International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 524, Issues 1–2, 30 May 2017, Pages 443-453
Johannes Parmentier, En Hui Tan, Ariana Low, Jan Peter Möschwitzer

Research article
Attrition strength of water-soluble cellulose derivative coatings applied on different core materials
Powder Technology, Volume 222, May 2012, Pages 71-79
Katarzyna Nienaltowska, Frédéric Depypere, Giacomo Perfetti, Gabrie M.H. Meesters, Frederik Ronsse, Jan G. Pieters, Koen Dewettinck

Research article
Modulating pH-independent release from coated pellets: Effect of coating composition on solubilization processes and drug release
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 72, Issue 1, May 2009, Pages 111-118
Simon Ensslin, Klaus Peter Moll, Hendrik Metz, Markus Otz, Karsten Mäder

Research article
Estimating coating quality parameters on the basis of pressure drop measurements in a Wurster draft tube
Powder Technology, Volume 246, September 2013, Pages 41-50
Matjaž Perpar, Matevž Luštrik, Rok Dreu, Stanko Srčič, Iztok Žun

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An experimental evaluation of the accuracy to simulate granule bed compression using the discrete element method
Powder Technology, Volume 219, March 2012, Pages 249-256
Ann-Sofie Persson, Göran Frenning

Research article
Measurement of particle concentration in a Wurster coater draft tube using light attenuation
Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 110, June 2016, Pages 20-31
R. Šibanc, I. Žun, R. Dreu

Research article
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Powder Technology, Volume 342, 15 January 2019, Pages 572-584
Daniel Müller, Andreas Bück, Evangelos Tsotsas

Research article
Flowability of surface modified pharmaceutical granules: A comparative experimental and numerical study
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 42, Issue 3, 14 February 2011, Pages 199-209
Ann-Sofie Persson, Göran Alderborn, Göran Frenning

Research article
Mechanics of Pharmaceutical Pellets—Constitutive Properties, Deformation, and Breakage Behavior
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 107, Issue 2, February 2018, Pages 571-586
Alexander Russell, Rok Šibanc, Rok Dreu, Peter Müller

Research article
Global monitoring of fluidized-bed processes by means of microwave cavity resonances
Measurement, Volume 55, September 2014, Pages 520-535
Johan Nohlert, Livia Cerullo, Johan Winges, Thomas Rylander, Tomas McKelvey, Anders Holmgren, Lubomir Gradinarsky, Staffan Folestad, Mats Viberg, Anders Rasmuson

Research article
Optimising the in vitro and in vivo performance of oral cocrystal formulations via spray coating
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 124, March 2018, Pages 13-27
Dolores R. Serrano, David Walsh, Peter O’Connell, Naila A. Mugheirbi, Zelalem Ayenew Worku, Francisco Bolas-Fernandez, Carolina Galiana, Maria Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela, Anne Marie Healy

Research article

Research article
Dry Particle High-Impact Coating of Biopowders: Coating Strength
Particulate Science and Technology, Volume 27(4), 2009
S. Ötles, O. Lecoq, J. A. Dodds

Research article

Formulation and Analytical Development for Low-Dose Oral Drug Products
John Wiley & Sons , inc. (2009), ISBN 978-0-470-05609-7
Jack Zheng (Editor)



Multiparticulates made of pellets are ideal dosage forms to be used in pediatrics. Having the suitability of paediatric consumers in mind, formulations of small-sized pellets offer a valuable base for increased compliance and improved age-appropriately dosage form. Due to their round shape of pellets, smooth surface area and narrow particle size distribution they can easily be functionally coated [1] to achieve e. g. a taste masking, enteric protection or the controlled release of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in defined parts of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. The release profile then often depends on the coating weight gain (thickness) and composition of the functional coating.

Coating weight gain, manufacture and analysis of pellets

A well soluble drug was used as model API.  In a first approach, pellets were produced applying the ProCell technology, a direct pelletization process allowing the production of highly drug loaded matrix pellets (here 95%) in a spouted bed. Two types of pellets were produced: A) with a poly amino saccharide-based binder, followed by a cellulose based seal coating and B) with a polyacrylic acid-based binder, followed by a pH-depending coating. In a second approach the API was layered onto inert starter cores (MCC, CELLETS® 200) by the aid of a cellulose based binder and antitacking agent applying the Wurster technology targeting a drug load of 50 %, followed by a pH-depending coating (C). All three pellets-based populations were functionally coated by a pH-independent sustained release polymer. Samples were taken at pre-defined coating levels for dissolution testing. For API layering and coating a GPCG 1.1 with a 6” Wurster insert was used. Direct pelletization was performed in a ProCell 5. Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis was performed by Eyecon2TM. The particle size is given as numeric or volumetric distribution (e.g. Dn50 or Dv50). The specific surface area is calculated by measuring the true density by gas pycnometry and the Sauter diameter by Laser diffraction. Dissolution was measured in the acid stage (0.1 M HCl), in buffer pH 5.5 and in buffer pH 7.2 over 300 min. The API should not be released in the first 180 min. Between 210 min and 240 min an increased drug release is expected. The dissolution rates at 225 min were compared for the coating levels at 10, 15 and 20 %.


With increasing coating weight gains decreasing dissolution rates at 225 min were measured for the sustained release coating with a good linearity. Matrix PEL (A) show higher dissolution rates comparing the same coating levels than Matrix PEL (B), Wurster pellets showed the strongest decrease with increasing CWG, table 1, figure 1. This correlation was not observed for pH-depending coating (data not shown).

Dv 50 [µm] Dn 50 [µm] PSD mean [µm] Specific surface area [m2/g]
A Matrix PEL 496 475 481 0,00980
B Matrix PEL 461 427 425 0,01210
C Wurster PEL 414 396 401 0,01100

Table 1. PSD data and specific surface area of starter beads before functional coating.

coating weight gain

Figure 1. Dissolution at 225 min vs. coating weight gain (CWG)


Drug loaded pellets were prepared either as matrix pellets applying the ProCell technology, or by layering of starter cores applying the Wurster technology. Both populations were coated with different coating levels of a sustained release functional coating, resulting in decreasing dissolution rates with increasing coating weight gain. Due to the good correlation between coating weight gain and dissolution profile a prediction of the dissolution rate might be possible for pre-defined coating levels. These findings are a crucial step towards novel paediatric formulations with improved dissolution profiles and dosage safety.


[1] Palugan, L.; Cerea, M.; Zema, L.; Gazzaniga, A.; Maroni, A. Coated pellets for oral colon delivery, Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology 25, 1 – 15 (2015).

This study was presented on 14th annual EuPFI conference, Rome, Italy.

Metoprolol pellets

Abstract on Metoprolol pellets

Metoprolol Tartrate is a salt of Metoprolol, a selective β1-receptor blocker medication. The application is the treatment of high blood pressure, chest pain due to poor blood flow to the heart, and several conditions involving an abnormally fast heart rate [2]. In the following, an attempt is shown, wherein MCC spheres are used as starter cores for a multi-layer pellet formulation.

This case study is a short abstract of the publication by P. Wanasawas et al. [1] and presents controlled release Metoprolol Tartrate layered pellets achieving colon-specific drug delivery.

Pellet technology attempt

In the following, in-situ calcium pectinate-coated MCC pellets (CELLETS® 700) were proposed by applying an alternate coating method to drug-layered pellets to achieve colon-specific drug delivery. Using a centrifugal granulator, inert MCC pellets were layered by a Metoprolol Tartrate water-soluble model drug. A protective HPMC layer helps to strengthen cracks or delamination from the core in the later stage of the coating processes. Then, alternate coatings of pectin and calcium chloride layers were spray coated by fluidized bed bottom spray technology (GPCG-1, Glatt®, Germany). This technology allows achieving uniform coating layers. The subcoating with pectin and calcium pectinate polymers allow site-specific drug delivery targeting the colon due to their low water solubility. Both excipients additionally degraded completely by gut microflora [3].

By testing different composition in multilayer coatings with calcium and pectin, some interesting phenomena are stated:

  • the release behavior follows the Higuchi model
  • the drug release can be described by a diffusion control mechanism
  • the coating of the outermost layer defines the success in controlled drug release

The latter point issues the importance of the outermost layer which is whether composed by pectin or calcium. In case of calcium, the drug release was accelerated independently of the number of Ca/P layers, such that a 4-layer system (P/Ca/P/Ca) yield a faster drug release that a 3-alyer system (P/Ca/P), see Figure 1. This is explained by the effect of the calcium ions in the outermost layer, leading to a weakening in the calcium pectinate coating layer.

Metoprolol pellets

Figure 1: Metoprolol pellets. From left to right: Ca/P, P/Ca/P, Ca/P/Ca/P layered pellets. Colors: Cellets as MCC pellet (green), Metoprolol Tartrate (orange), Talcum (blue), Calcium (white), Pectin (grey).

Once, pectin is the component in the outermost layer, this led to a difference in drug release at neutral and slightly acidic conditions of the dissolution media. While in a neutral pH 7.4 buffer, the dissolution kinetics were comparable for a P/Ca/P-system and Ca/P-system, the situation changes in a slightly acidic buffer at pH 6.0. In a phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 the dissolution of a P/Ca/P-system was faster than of a Ca/P-system due to the almost complete ionization of pectin at pH 6.0.


This case study highlights the controlled release profile of Metoprolol Tartrate as a water-soluble model drug. The formulation is based on CELLETS® 700, which serve as inert MCC spheres. By a variation in the multi-layer composition of calcium and pectin, the dissolution kinetics and controlled release profiles were examined.


This research was funded by Thailand Research Fund through Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program, grant number PHD/00005/2541.


[1] P. Wanasawas, A. Mitrevej, N. Sinchaipanid, Pharmaceutics 14 (2022) 1061, https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14051061

[2] The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 12 March 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140312062359/http://www.drugs.com/monograph/metoprolol-succinate.html

[3] M. Khotimchenko, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 158 (2020) 1110-1124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.05.002

Figure 3: SEM picture of cross section of a Taste masked pellets coated with 25 mg Eudragit EPO.


This case study on Atomoxetine HCl pellets is a short abstract of the publication by Y.D. Priya et al. [1].

Atomoxetine is a medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [2]. The API is marketed under the trade names Atomoxetine, Atomoxe, Agakalin, and Strattera (initially launched) [3]. Atomoxetine is an extremely bitter API. As being initially launched for children as capsules or tablets, the paediatric compliance by improved taste-masking and the simplified administration to paediatrics are in focus of this study.

A multi-unit particulate pellet coating (MUPS) was selected as oral dosage form. The fluidized bed technology (with Wurster column) was employed for coating and layering processes. This is a well-known technology, which Is for instance offered by Glatt. Starter cores were coated with the API, followed by layering with a polymeric coating for which realized the taste-masking.

Atomoxetine layering

Starter cores are made of Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) in sizes comparable to CELLETS® 200, while a fair efficiency of drug layering was observed with the combination of HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose) and HPC (Hydroxypropyl cellulose) as binders. The composition of API layering is presented in Table 1. The drug dispersion was sprayed onto the MCC pellets with an inlet temperature between 50 °C and 55 °C and a fluidized bed temperature between 35 °C and 40 °C.

API layering material Composition
Starter core
  MCC pellets 58.00
API layering
  Atomoxetine HCl 25.00
  Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 3.50
  Hydroxypropyl Cellulose 3.50
  Low-Substituted Hydroxypropyl Cellulose 5.00
  Talc 5.00
  Purified Water Qs
Total weight (mg) 100.00

Table 1: Formulation of API layered pellets.

Taste-masking coating

The polymeric taste-masking layer is made of a methacrylate co-polymer (Eudragit EPO) providing an excellent coating with taste masking properties for fine particles and tablets. The composition of the taste-masking suspension is shown in Table 2. The inlet temperature is between 40 °C and 45 °C, and fluidized bed temperature is between 25 °C and 30 °C.

Polymeric coating material Composition
Drug Layered pellets 100.00
Eudragit EPO 25.00
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate 2.500
Stearic acid 3.750
Talc 6.25
FD&C Yellow No. 6 0.50
FD&C Red No. 3 0.05
Purified Water Qs
Total weight (mg) 138.050

Table 2: Formulation of polymeric coating suspension.

The efficiency of taste-masking was benchmarked by a bitterness rating on human volunteers. Figure 1 shows, that the taste sensitivity identifies a bitterness at 6 µg/ml API concentration and an extreme bitterness at 7 µg/ml API and higher concentration. Thus, the threshold bitterness of Atomoxetine HCl is 6 µg/ml.

Atomoxetine: bitternessFigure 1: Concentration of drug solution (µg/ ml). Bitter intensity ratings from no bitterness (green), bitterness (blue), extremely bitter (red).

Figure 1: Concentration of drug solution (µg/ ml). Bitter intensity ratings from no bitterness (green), bitterness (blue), extremely bitter (red).

All the volunteers felt bitter taste when the drug layered pellets were coated with 6.25 mg of Eudragit EPO. Whereas in the pellets coated with 12.5 mg and 18.75 mg of Eudragit EPO, bitter taste was masked up to 15 seconds after keeping the tablet in the mouth, and later all the human volunteers felt bitter taste. When the concentration of Eudragit EPO was increased to 25 mg, the bitter taste of Atomoxetine HCl was completely taste-masked and no volunteer was felt bitter taste.

Figure 2: In-Vivo Taste evaluation in healthy human volunteers.

Figure 2: In-Vivo Taste evaluation in healthy human volunteers.

Figure 3 depicts the entire particle size of a taste-masked MCC pellet coated with the Atomoxetine drug layer and 25 mg of Eudragit EPO. The average particle size of the taste-masked pellets is between 180 µm and 250 µm, assuming, that no gritty feeling of particles in patient’s mouth will appear. It should be said, that a micronization of Atomoxetine HCl was deemed to be necessary for the drug layering process. Micronization minimized the surface roughness of the API layered pellet so that an efficient taste-masking coating can be applied.

Figure 3: SEM picture of cross section of a Taste masked pellets coated with 25 mg Eudragit EPO.

Figure 3: SEM picture of cross section of a Taste masked pellets coated with 25 mg Eudragit EPO.


MCC pellets in the size of about 200 µm were layered with Atomoxetine. HPMC and HPC were used as binders, realizing a precise surface definition for a subsequent taste-masking coating. The taste-masking was most efficient at a polymeric concentration of 25 mg. Keeping the size of the coated pellets below 300 µm avoids a gritty feeling and thus increase the patient’s compliance.

This study by Priya et al. indicated that the fluidized bed process produced the most appropriate taste masked pellets of Atomoxetine HCl for oral disintegrating tablets.


[1] Y.D. Priya et al., Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, (6) 7, (2014) 110-115

[2] “Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Monograph for Professionals”. Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.

[3] ROTE LISTE 2017, Verlag Rote Liste Service GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, ISBN 978-3-946057-10-9, (2017) 162.

Taste masked coated micropellets

Abstract on Tamoxifen

Tamoxifen is widely used in transgenic research in mice to induce Cre recombinase activity and achieve conditional gene knockouts [1]. However administrating tamoxifen to mice is challenging The commonly used dosing methods are oral gavage or intraperitoneal injection [2] which require specialist staff training and can cause pain, distress and adverse effects to the animal. Tamoxifen containing rodent chow is commercially available however, the poor palatability of the diet leads to reduced food intake and weight loss of the mice. The addition of sweeteners improves palatability, but this can affect the metabolic balance of the mice.

In this application a study is described in which a palatable tamoxifen containing rodent chow is developed by mixing taste masking coated micropellets with powdered rodent food. This attempt shell improve:

  • Reduction of potential welfare concerns,
  • Reduction of dose variability,

and induce

  • a more consistent recombinase activity,
  • a decrease in the variability of phenotyping data from these experiments,
  • a reduction in the number of animals used


The API was spray layered onto microcrystalline cellulose substrates CELLETS® 100 and subsequently coated using Surelease®, both as aqueous formulations in a bench top fluidized bed coater (Mini Glatt®). Two taste masking coated tamoxifen citrate micropellet formulations were prepared and analyzed. One formulation has a coating levels of 5 % (F1) and the second formulation contains mannitol in the drug layer with a coating level of 10 % (F2). Sieve analysis of taste masking coated micropellets (Figure 2) shows that both formulations achieved yields of at least 99 % (proportion of pellets with size < 250 µm), see Fig. 1.

Tamoxifen sieve analysis

Figure 1: Tamoxifen sieve analysis. Graphs: F1 (light green); F2 (light blue).

In USP II dissolution test the uncoated tamoxifen citrate (micronized and un-micronized particles) showed a fast dissolution at >80 % release within 45 minutes (Figure 3). The micronized particles dissolved slower than the un-micronized due to particle agglomeration during dissolution.

Drug release slowed down after applying the taste masking coating; with decreasing pore former concentration or increasing coating thickness, the drug release rate decreases. After 45 min, both formulations F1 and F2 showed >75 % drug release, successful as immediate release formulations (Fig. 2).

Drug release of Tamoxifen Citrate in USP II test

Figure 2: Drug release of Tamoxifen Citrate in USP II test. Graphs: F1 with coating Level 5 % and polymer ratio 75:25 (light green); F2 Mannitol with coating level 10 % polymer ratio 85:15 (light blue); Tamoxifen Citrate micronized (blue); Tamoxifen Citrate un-micronized (grey).

Taste masking effectiveness of Tamoxifen micropellets

The in vitro tests for evaluating the taste masking effectiveness of the formulations showed that after 30s, micropellets with both coating formulations are effective in providing a taste masking barrier with a tamoxifen citrate release of less than 0.5% (Fig. 3).


Inverted Vial test for taste masking effect evaluation

Figure 3: Inverted Vial test for taste masking effect evaluation. Graphs: F1 (green), F2 (blue) with % Release after 30s (light color) and Concentration (mg/ml) after 30s (dark color).


Taste masking of coated tamoxifen citrate micropellets were successfully manufactured in a fluidized bed applying the MicroCoat™ technology with > 99% yield and particle size < 250 µm. The coating provided effective protection to prevent tamoxifen citrate release in the mouth but immediate drug release in the stomach pH conditions of the mice. Additionally, the small particle size of the coated micropellets ensured effective mixing with the powder rodent feed with excellent recovery and uniformity. The product is flexible in dose adjustment and improves API handling safety in animal units, offering an innovative approach of doing tamoxifen to mice for Cre recombination research via voluntary food intake. The method has the potential to reduce suffering
and improve welfare of the mice, promoting 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement) in animal research.

Taste masked coated micropellets

Taste masked coated micropellets


The project is funded by the United Kingdom National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (the NC3Rs) through the CRACK IT challenge Tat Fit  project number NC/C020S02/1).

Dr. Fang Liu and her team are gratefully acknowledged for serving content for this note.

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Contact: Dr. Fang LIU
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